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Volume 11(3); September 1996
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Original Articles
No title in English.
No authors listed No authors listed
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):257-262.   Published online November 7, 2019
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No abstract available.
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Assessment of Growth Hormone Status.
Sung Woon Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):263-267.   Published online November 7, 2019
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No abstract available.
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A Clinical Study on Hypopitutiarism: Significance of Combined Pituitary Stimulation Test.
Bo Youn Cho, Hong Gyu Lee, Chang Soon Koh, Hyung Kyu Park, Sook Kyung Kim, Chan Soo Shin, Seong Yeon Kim, Jae Seok Chun, Kyung Soo Park, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Sun Wook Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):268-276.   Published online November 7, 2019
  • 1,226 View
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Background
Hypopituitarism can be caused by various diseases. Its clinical manifestations vary, depending on the extent and severity of the pituitary hormone deficiency. And some patients may initially present with SIADH-like features. Combined pituitary stimulation test has been used for the diagnosis of hypopituitarism and subsequent hormone replacement therapy. However, the test is laborious, expensive and uncomfortable to the patients, So we performed this study to know whether combined pituitary stimulation test can be replaced with clinical features and simple basal hormone concentrations. Methods: Fifty-four patients who were diagnosed as hypopituitarism by combined pituitary stimulation test were included in this study. Clinical features and basal hormone data were compared with the results of combined pituitary stimulation test for the evaluation of pituitary-gonadal, pituitary-thyroid, and pituitary-adrenal axes, using X2 test. Results: 1) In pituitary-gonadal axis, the evaluation of clinical features and basal gonad hormone concentrations were significantly consistent with stimulation test(p<0.05), 2) In pituitary-thyroid axis, the evaluation of basal thyroid hormone concentrations were more helpful than stimulation test though results of the two tests were not consistent. 3) In pituitary-adrenal axis, all patients whose basal cortisol concentrations were low showed inadequate responses to stimulation test. However, stimulation test revealed adrenal insufficiency in some patients with normal basal cortisol concentrations. 4) 9 patients who presented with SIADH-like features were older than the others and had all corticotropin deficiency. Conclusion: In patients with suspected hypopituitarism, the evaluation of clinical features and basal hormone concentrations can be sufficient for the diagnosis of hypopituitarism and hormone replacement therapy. However, stimulation test is necessary to investigate adrenal function in patients with normal basal cortisol concentrations. And hypopituitarism should be considered in old patients who present with SIADH-like features.
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Reduction of Central Dopamine Release in Hyperprolactinemia.
Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Su Youn Nam, Eun Jig Lee, Bong Chul Chung, Jung Han Kim, Sei Chang Oh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):277-284.   Published online November 7, 2019
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Background
Prolactin(PRL) secretion is tonically inhibited by doparnine that originates from the hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular tract and reaches the lactotroph via the hypophyseal portal vessel. Hyperprolactinemia associated with oligomenorrhea-amenorrhea, galactorrhea and/or infertility is mainly due to PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma(PA). The diagnosis of idiopathic hyperprolac- tinemia(IHP) is made, when hyperprolactinemia is sustained and all causes of hyperprolactinemia are excluded without radiological abnormality. It is not known, whether IHP and PA are two distinct entities or two subsequent phases of the same disease. The etiology of both disorders remains unresolved. We investigated that PRL hypersecretion in patients with IHP and PA may be the result of a defect in the central nervous system(CNS)-dopamine release, and that there may be some differences in pathogenesis of both diseases. Methods: We measured 24 hour-urinary dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serum and 24 hour-urinary VMA(vanillyl rnandelic acid), HVA(homovanilic acid), DOPAC(3,4-dihydroxy phenylaceticacid), MHPG(3-methoxy 4-hydroxy phenylglycol) in 10 normal controls, 9 patients with IHP, and 17 patients with PA in the early follicular phase. Results: Urinary HVA and DOPAC concentrations, the major metabolites of CNS dopaminergic activity, were signficantly lower in both patients with IHP and PA compared with those in normal controls(p 0.05), whereas they were not different in both disease groups. Dopamine, norepine-phrine, epinephrine, MHPG concentrations were similar to those of the normal controls. Although VMA concentrations of both disease groups were significantly higher than those of normal controls, all of them were within normal range. Conelusion: Although our data are unable to establish the precise biochemical defect responsible for central dopamine deficiency in pathogensis of IHP and PA, we can support the presence of a pathological reduction of brain dopamine activity in IHP and PA.
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Clinical and Sellar MR Findings in Central Diabets Inspidus.
Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Su Youn Nam, Eun Jig Lee, Sei Chang Oh, Byung Hee Lee, Dong Ik Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):285-292.   Published online November 7, 2019
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Background
s: Diabetes insipidus(DI) is a clinical syndrome characterized by excretion of copious volumes of dilute urine combined with persistent intake of abnormally large quantities of fluid. Central DI, caused by lack of antidiuretic hormone(ADH), most often results from lesions in the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal axis. Magnetic resonance(MR) imaging is particularly useful in documenting the presence of a structural lesion, as opposed to assigning a diagnosis of idiopathic DI for which only symptomatic therapy is prescribed. Recently, several reports have described a specific MR finding in central DI, that is absence of normal posterior pituitary bright spot(PPBS). Methods: We retrospectivesly studied the clinical and MR findings in 25 patients with central DI, diagnosed by warter deprivation test. Results: 1) The subjects included 17 males and 8 females, between the ages of 2 and 58 years. 2) 24-hour urine volumes were 2,340~13,750 mL, and mean urine osmolarity was 147.7±65.8 mOsm/kg. The 23 subjects diagnosed complete central DI by warter deprivation test. 3) We found that the most common cause of cntral DI was infiltrative lesions of hypothalmic-neurohypophyseal axis(60%). Germ cell tumor was the single leading cause in present study, accounting for 36% of cases. The other causes were found, including pituitary apoplexy, meningitis, and trauma. Idiopathic central DI accounted for 20% of all cases. 4) Growth hormone deficiency was the most common accompanying anterior pituitary deficit, and panhypopituitarism was found in 7 cases, Hyperprolactinernia was seen in 6 cases. 5) In all patients, PPBS on Tl weighted MR images were not observed. A thickened pituitary stalk was seen in 15 cases(9 patients with germ cell tumor, 3 patients with histiocytosis X, 1 patient with tuberculosis, 2 patients with unknown origin). Conclusion: In our results, the most common causes of central DI was suprasellar infiltrative lesions. MR is currently the imaging methods of choice in the evaulation of dysfunction of the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system in patients with central DI. A specific MR finding, that is loss of normal PPBS allows a confirmative diagnosis of central DI.
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The Changes of Serum Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM-1) According to the Clinical Course of Graves' Disease Treated with Antithyroid Drug.
Jin Hong Lee, Jae Kyu Shin, So Young Bak, Bong Soo An, Bon Jeong Ku, Mee Ae Ahn, Jun Sik Jeon, Young Kun Kim, Heung Kyu Ro
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):293-301.   Published online November 7, 2019
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Background
TSH binding inhibiting imunoglobulins(TBII) are autoimmune antibody causing autoimmune thyroid diseases such as Graves disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis, while intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) is known as a substance expressed at the site of autoimmune reaction in relation with lymphocyte infiltration. The serum TBII activity is used as an index of the disease course and prognosis of Graves disease treated with antithyroid drugs, propylthiouracil or methimazole. The aim of this study is to understand the change of serum ICAM-1 level according to the change of the degree of autoimmunity and clinical course of Graves disease. Methods: In order to study the change of soluble ICAM-1 and relationship to the immune mechanism of Graves' disease, we measured serum levels of TBII and ICAM-1 in patients(n 35) with Graves disease before and after treatment with antithyroid drugs and in relapsed patients using a highly sensitive ELISA method. Results: The serum levels of TBII and ICAM-1 were markedly elevated in patients with Graves disease before treatment than normal controls and there were good correlation between TBII and ICAM-1 level. In patients with normalized TBII levels after 22 months antithyroid drug treatment, the ICAM-1 levels became normal but in the patients with high serum TBII level showed high serum level of ICAM-1 even with clinical remission with same treatment. The serum levels of TBII and ICAM-1 in relapsed patients were elevated as those of patients before treatment. Conclusion: With the above results, we can conclude that not only the TBII level but seru ICAM-1 level also reflect the degree of autoimmune activity of Graves disease and may be used as an index of the disease course and prognosis of Graves disease treated with antithyroid drugs.
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A Clinical Study of Postpartum Autoimmute Thyroiditis.
Hee Jin Kim, Yeon Ah Sung, Nan Ho Kyung
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):302-310.   Published online November 7, 2019
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Background
Postpartum thyroiditis is a painless, destructive lymphocytic inflammation of the thyroid gland that occurs during the postpartum period and is associated with a high prevalence of serum thyroid autoantibodies. Clinical symptoms and laboratory fi#ndings of postpartum thyroiditis vary widely during the course of illness and the final outcome of this disease remains unpredictive in some patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical course and the predictors of the outcome of the disease. Methods: Thirty-eight patients proven to have postpartum thyroiditis at the Ewha Womans University Hospital were studied. We analyzed their clinical features, laboratory findings and duration of recovery to characterize the course of the disease. Results: Their mean age was 29.0±3.3 years and the time of diagnosis was 4.9±1.9 months after delivery. The prevailed months of delivery were November through January in this study. Twenty six patients were hypothyroid and 12 were thyrotoxic at initial thyroid function. The positive rates of antithyroglobulin and anitmicrosomal antibodies were 92%, 67% in the hypothyroid group and 75%, 67% in th thyrotoxic group respectively. TSH receptor antibodies were negative in all patients. In the hypothyroid group the titers of antimicrosomal antibodies were significantly higer than the thyrotoxic group. The titers of antimicrosomal antibodies were positively correlated with serum TSH and negatively correlated with serum T4. In all patients, the titers in thyroid function tests returned to the normal range without long-term hypothyroidism. Conclusion: The titers of antimicrosomal antibodies were significantly higher in the hypothyroid group than the thyrotoxic group. Thus the titers of antimicrosomal antibodies can help guide the physician in the care of patients with postpartum thyroiditis who will probably be hypothyroid. In this study, we were surprised that all patients became euthyroid without permanent hypothyroidism.
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A Case of Thyroid Papillary Cancer Derived from Diffuse Goiter in a Patients with Acromegaly.
Dong Hee Kim, Jick Hwa Nam, Byoung Ho Sin, Ye Kyung Seo, Jung Guk Kim, Sung Woo Ha, Bo Wan Kim, Young Ha Lee, In Su Seo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):311-317.   Published online November 7, 2019
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Patients with acromegaly have a reduced life expectancy rnainly due to cardiovascular, respiratory or cerebrovascular diseas-. Malignancy also seems to occur with greater than the expected incidence. In particular, the published retrospective or prospective studies have suggested a strong association of colonic neoplasia with acromegaly. But, there were a few reports of thyroid cancer in acrornegaly. We report a case of thyroid papillary cancer derived from diffuse goiter in acromegaly, sugge- sting the possible carcinogenic role of growth hormone.
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Kallmann's Syndrome Associasted with Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis.
Hyeon Jeong Jeon, Byeong Seong Ko, Do Hyeong Kim, Jang Hwan Bae, TGae Geun Oh, Seung Baek Kang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):318-323.   Published online November 7, 2019
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  • 27 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The Kallmanns syndrome is the most common form of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in which anosmia or hyposmia resulting from agenesis of hypoplasia of the olfactory lobes is associated with LHRH deficiency, This syndrome is genetically heterogeneous and can be trans-mitted as an X-linked, autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive trait. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadism results in absent or incomplete pubertal development and may be associated with anosmia or hyposmia, mid-line defect(color blindness, cleft-lip or -palate, unilateral renal agenesis, nerve deafness), cryptorchidism and skeletal abnormalities. The slipped capital fernoral epiphysis is the condition in which the femoral head slips downward and backward on the femoral neck at the epiphyseal plate. The clinical association between slipped capital femoral epiphysis and endocrine disorder. We experienced a case of the slipped capital femoral epiphyis associated with Kallmanns syndrome in a 17 years old male.
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Pituitary Stalk Transection Syndrome.
Yong Hwan Cho, Jae Hoon Shin
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):324-329.   Published online November 7, 2019
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We experienced one case of severe pituitary dwarfism in a 16 years old male boy that magnetic resonance image(MRI) revealed transection of the pituitary stalk with the ectopic location of posterior pituitary gland and hypoplastic anterior pituitary gland. The serum growth horrnone(GH) response to clonidine and L-dopa revealed severe GH deficiency. The patient revealed normal response in TSH, prolactin and LH, FSH to TRH and LHRH respectively. So far, the primary cause of idiopathic pituitary dwarfism in many patients was due to hypoxic injury to hypothalmus by perinatal insults. In this patients, there was no history of perinatal insults and postnatal head trauma. We report a case of severe dwarfism due to hypogenesis of anterior pituitary gland.
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Case Reports
A Case of Diabetes Insipidus with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in Adult.
Jae Hoon Chung, Kwang Won Kim, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Yong Ki Min, Myung Shik Lee, Moon Kyu Lee, Eun Mi Koh, Choon Kwan Kim, Mann Pyo Jung
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):330-335.   Published online November 7, 2019
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In Langerhans cell histiocytosis, diabetes insipidus is the most common endocrinologic complication. We experienced a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, involving pituitary stalk and lung. The patient was a 43 year old male with complaint of polyuria and polydipsia. The water deprivation test was carried out to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus. We found multiple small cysts and nodules in HRCT of lung, and diagnosed Langerhans cell histiocytosis by transbronchial lung biopsy, The patient was managed conservatively with DDAVP nasal spray. The polyuria,polydipsia was relieved completely. After that, we follow up and observe closely the patients lung and pituitary lesion.
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A Case of Follicular Carcinoma Associated with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Arising in a Thyroglossal Duct Remnant.
Jin Choi, Jun Cheol Lee, Sun Mi Park, Tae Joon Cha, Hark Rim, Young Sik Choi, Yo Han Park, Hee Kyung Chang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):336-342.   Published online November 7, 2019
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Thyroglossal duct remnants are common congenital abnormalities of the thyroid development but malignant tumors arising in the thyroglossal duct remnants are rare, occuring in less than 1%. In the literature, about 160 cases of malignancy in the thyroglossal duct remnant have been reported. Among the various types of carcinoma being found from the thyroglossal duct remnants, most are papillary carcinoma(79.8%) and Mixed follicular-papillary carcinoma(9.5%). Others are squamous cell carcinoma(7.6%), follicular carcinoma(1.2%), and anaplastic carcinoma(0.6%). Hashimotos thyroiditis is a common autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland. Malignant tumors of the thyroid gland with Hashimotos thyroiditis are rare disorder except malignant lymphoma whose association with Hashimotos thyroiditis is well known. Malignant tumors associated with Hashimotos thyroiditis arising in a thyroglossal duct remnant are extremely rare. Recently the authors experienced a case of follicular carcinoma associated with Hashimotos thyroiditis arising in a thyroglossal duct remnant, which was removed by local excision and reported with literature review.
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A Case of Calcitonin Secreting Pheochromocytoma.
Joo Won Byun, Young Goo Shin, Choon Hee Chung, Young Jun Won, Yoon Jong Choi, Eui Ryun Park, Mi Duck Lee, Chang Ho Song, Mi Youn Cho, Sung Jun Kang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):343-347.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine producing turnor and raise with less than 0.1% of hypertensive patients. It is developed, most commonly, in sporadic pheochromocytoma or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Therefore, when hypercalcitoninemia is found in a patient with pheochromocytoma, the possibility of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 or the ectopic secretion of calcitonin must be considered. Recently we experienced a 45 year old male patient with sporadic pheochrornocytoma. He also had hypercalcitoninemia and normocalcemia. After the removal of pheochromocytoma, serum calcitnnin level returned to normal. Secretion of calcitonin was confirmed by immunohisto- chemical stain.
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A Case of Giant Adrenal Adenoma Presenting Primary Aldosteronism.
Ji Hyun Lee, Bong Soo Cha, Moon Suk Nam, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Hyung Chan Suh, Young Hwa Choi, Jae Min Park, Jung Soo Park, Soon Won Hong, Dong Hwan Shin
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):348-354.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Primary aldosteronism is a syndrome chracterized by hypokalemic alkalosis and hypertension. Small sized adrenal cortical adenomas have been the major cause of this syndrome in most of the patients. However, if the adrenal mass is larger than 6cm in diameter and with irregular consistency, malignancy is more favored. We experienced a patient who had a giant adrenal adenoma with primary aldosteronism. A 24-year-old female presented with hypertension, hypokalemia, low plasma renin, and high plasrna aldosterone levels, was found to have a 6×5.5×5 cm sized left adrenal tumor by MRI. Her clinical laboratory feature did not revealed any evidence of Cushing's syndrome or pheochromocytoma. Preoperatively adrenal carcinoma presenting pure adrenal aldosteronism was suspected due to large size and heterogenous signal character of the adrenal mass in radiologic study. At operation well encapsulated, round giant adrenal tumor weighing 65gm(4.5×4×4 cm) was removed. There was no evidence of metastasis with return of adrenal function to normal after surgery. Benign adrenal adenoma was confirmed by the gross morphology and the histologic features.
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A Case of Insulinoma Localized by Percutaneous Tracshepatic Portal Catheterization with Insulin Hormone Assay.
Byung Jin Kim, Jun Sang Lee, Kyung Seuk Lee, Byung Gyu Park, In Joo Kim, Yong Ki Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):355-361.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The diagnosis of insulinoma is made primarily by the detection of an inappropriately elevated serum insulin level in the presence of a low blood glucose level. The successful resection of insulin-secreting islet cell turnors is greatly facilitated by accurate preoperative localization. But, the modalities of ultrasonography, computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and selective arteriography often fail to detect insulinoma smaller than 1.5 cm in diameter. In this report, we describe a patient with an insulinoma successfully localized by percutaneous transhepatic portal vein sampling but not by abdominal ultrasonography, computer tomography and selective arteriography. Percutaneous transhepatic portal vein catheterization with insulin sampling showed sudden step-up of insulin concentrations near 6 cm from distal splenic vein. During operation, a 1×1.3cm sized tumor was found at the junction of body and tail of pancreas, so distal pancreatectomy was performed, We propose that preoperative percutaneous transhepatic portal vein catheterization with measurement of radioimmunoactive insulin concentration is a safe and reliable method and plays an important role to localize insulinoma that are considered occult after conventional diagnostic studies have been negative.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism