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Volume 13(1); March 1998
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Original Articles
Gene Therapy.
Seung Taik Kim, Tae Geun Oh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(1):1-11.   Published online January 1, 2001
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No abstract available.
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Hyperemesis Gravidarum and Thyroid Function.
Kyung Rae Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(1):12-15.   Published online January 1, 2001
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  • 16 Download
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No abstract available.
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Relationship between the Physiologic Night-Times surge and the Stimulated Peak Growth Hormome Levels in the Growth Hormone Deficiency Suspicious Children.
Phil Soo Oh, Jae Hoon Shin, Jae Kook Cha, Ki Joong Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(1):16-23.   Published online January 1, 2001
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Nowadays, to evaluate growth hormone(GH) deficiency-suspicious short stature, we usually use more than two kinds of provocative tests using various pharmacologic agents such as clonodine, L-dopa, insulin, etc. However, the importance of physiologic natural secretion of GH was recently approved. In the past, diagnosis of GH neurosecretory dysfunction was made by studying the 24-hour spantaneous GH secretion profile. But, because it is very clinically difficult, and so we measured and evaluated the mean GH concentrations of blood samples, obtained every 30 minutes during the first 3 hours' nocturnal sleep, instead of that. At the department of Pediatrics, Hanyang University Hospital from November, 1992 to February, 1994, we selected 34 GH deficiency-suspected children on the base of their growth data and bone age, etc. After GH stimulation with clonidine(100-150 ug/m2) and L-dopa(200-250 mg/m2), we measured their peak GH values by the immunoradiometric assay(IRMA) kit. And, we measured the mean GH concentrations of blood samples, obtained every 30 minutes during the first 3 hours noctumal sleep(22:OOPM-1:OOAM). RESULTS: 1. We analyzed the relationship between the mean of 3-hours' physiologic night-time surge of GH(X) and the phamacologically stimulated peak GH level(Y), except for the two neurosecretory dysfunction suspicious children. And so, for the 32 children, the relationship was Y=1.806X+ 3.177, r= 0.794, p<0.01. However, for all the tested children(34), the relationship is Y=1.709X+ 4.06, r=0.737, p<0.01. 2. We analyzed the relationship between the peak of 3-hours' physiologic night-time surge of GH(X) and the phamacologicaUy stimulated peak GH level(Y), except for the two neurosecretory dysfunction suspieious children. And so, for the 32 children, the relationship was Y=0.683X+ 3.686, r=737, p<0.01. CONCLUSION: For all the tested children(34), the relationship between the mean 3hr physiologic GH night time surge and stimulated peak GH value is Y=1.709X+4.06, r=0.737, p<0.01. The percentage of GH neurosecretory dysfunction is 5.8%(2/34). And, except for the two childrren, the relationship is more good, Y=1.806X+3.177, r=0,794, p<0.01. On the above relationship, the 3-hour GH night time-surge test might to give us some helpful information for the diagnosis of neurosecretory dysfunction.
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The Effect of Sex Steroid Hormone on the Expression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Preteins mRNA in the Explant Cultured from Human Uterine Myoma and Adjacent Normal Myometrium.
Jin Yong Lee, Jung Koo Kim, Chang Seok Seo, Seok Hyun Kim, Young Min Choi, Shin Yong Moon
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(1):34-44.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Sex steroid hormones are believed to play an important role in the genesis and growth of uterine myoma. Several studies suggest a possible role of insulin-like growth factor(IGF) as a mediator of estradiol in uterine myama. We have recently demonstrated that some IGF binding proteins(IGFRPs) messenger ribonucleic acid(mRNA) expressions in myoma are dependent on the in vivo esttogen status. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the in vitro effects of sex steroid hormones including estrogen on the IGFBPs gene expression in tissues from uterine myoma and adjacent normal myometrium. METHODS: Tissues from myoma and adjacent normal myometrium of patients with uterine myoma during early proliferative phase of menstrual cycle were cultured in the absence(control) and presence of 17b-estradiol(10M/L) or/and progesterone(10M/L) for 3 days. The IGFBPs mRNA expressions in these explants were analyzed by Nothern blot using specific human complementary deoxyribonucleic acid(cDNA) probes. RESULTS: The addition of 17b-estradiol, progesterone alone and in combination to conditioned media of explants from myoma and adjacent normal myornetrium did not result in any changes in the expression of IGFBP-2, IGFBP-4, IGFBP-5, and IGFBP-6 mRNA. With progesterone addtion, lGFBP-3 rnRNA expression was significantly reduced in myoma explant but not in adjacent ncemal myometrium explant. There was no significant change in the IGFBP-3 mRNA expression with 17b-estradiol and with the combination of both 17b-estradiol and progesterone. CONCLUSION: 17b-estradiol does not affect IGFBPs gene expression in the myoma and adjacent normal myometrium explant regardless of the presence of progesterone in vitro. However progesterone alone induces a decrease in IGFBP-3 synthesis in myoma explant.
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Antioxidative Effect of Melatonin in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.
Hyung Joon Yoo, Do Ho Moon, Hong Bae Chung, Myung Soo Ahn, Kwang Sik Yoon, Byoung Jin Ahn, Jin Shin, An Chul Chung, Young Joong Cho, Hong Woo Nahm
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(1):45-51.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
An increase in oxidative stress has been suggested to play major roles in the complications of diabetes. The bulk of the experimental data favors enhanced free radicals in diabetes and antioxidant defense mechanisms may be reduced in diabetes. Melatonin, the major secretory product of the pineal gland has been shown to be a potent and specific hydroxyl radical scavenger. The purpose of our study was to determine the antioxidative effeet of melatonin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-240 g were divided into 3 groups: normal controls(n-7), diabetic contmls(n-9), melatonin-treated diabetic animals(n-9). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotoein(55 mg/kg body weight) and melatonin(6 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered for 20 days. At day 20 after streptozotocin administration, blood was collected for the assay of glucose, albumin and cholesterol. Erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation was determined by malonyldialdehyde(MDA) reactivity. RESULTS: 1) The MDA resctivity of erytbrocyte membrane in melatonin-treated diabetic animals (meanstandard deviation: 5.52+-1.52nmol/ml packed cells) were lower(p<0.05) than that in diabetic controls(7.68+-1.16nmol/mL packed cells). But, there was no significant difference between melatonin-treated diabetic animals and normal contls(4.93+-1.19 nmol/mL packed cells). 2) There were no significant differences of blood glucose and body weight between diabetic controls and melatonin-treated diabetic animals. CONCLUSION: These results show the antioxidative effect of melatonin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Further clinical and long-term experimental studies are needed to assess the effect of melatonin on development and progression of diabetic complications.
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Thyroid Function and Clinical Characteristics in Patients with Severe Hypermesis Gravidarum.
Byoung Sik Moon, Tae Sun Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(1):52-59.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
The relation between clinical characteristics and a change of thymid functions in patients with hyperemesis gavidarum(HO) has not been well described. In order to clarify this characteristics, we evaluated thyroid function in patients with HG and compared the relationship to clinical characteristics of gestational thyrotoxicosis and hyperemesis. METHODS: From March, 1991, to April, 1997, 20 patients were admitted to the department of obstetrics in Chonbuk National University Hospital because of HG. We examined clinical characteristics of patients with HG(age, marrital age, levels of educations, obstetrical history, gestational duration, vomiting duration, degree of weight loss, infant's birth weights, duration of pregnancy). Thyroid functions, liver functions and serum electrolytes was measured. Also, we compared to the clinical characteristics of patients with HG according to thyroxine concentration. RESULTS: An increased free thyroxine concentration was observed m 65% of 20 pregnancies complicated by severe HG. The level of serum ALT was greater in thyrotoxicosis patients(91.2+-76.6 IU/L, mean +-SD) than normothyroxemic patients(20.3+-12.7 IU/L, P=0.027). Also, increased level of serum AST was observed in patients with HG. In patients with thyrotoxicosis, the long durations of vomiting was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Increased free thyroxine concentration is found in severe HG. Because the relatively higher risk for thyrotoxicosis, patients with severe hyperemesis, they must be evaluated about thyroid functions.
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Clinical Applicability of Ultrasonometric Skin Thickness Measurement in the Diagnosis of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Comparison with DXA.
Young Seol Kim, In Kwon Han, Duk Ju Lee, Kwang Min Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(1):60-66.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Osteoporosis is developed by progressive decrease of bone rnass from decreased collagen content of bone. Accurate measurement of bone collagen is necessary for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and it is possible by bone biopsy, however bone biopsy is not easy in clinical practice. Skin collagen is consist with type I collagen which is same type of bone collagen and progressive decrease of bone collagen is reflected by decrease of skin collagen. Since skin thickness reflect skin collagen amount, skin thickness measurement may be a useful method for the evaluation of osteoporosis. So ultrasonic skin thickness measurement was developed for the evaluation of osteoporosis. METHODS: A randomly selected 200 women aged fram 30 to 71 years old were asked to have their skin thickness measured as well as lumbar vertebral DXA(Norland, USA) bone densitometry. Except for the two women who failed to complete the study, 45(22.7%) of these women were diagnosed as normal, 74(37.4%) were osteopenic and 79(39.9%) were diagnosed as osteoporosis patients using the WHO criteria. Skin thickness was measured using 20MHz Osteoson DCIII (Minhorst, Germany) at the medial side of the upper arm. A minimal of Two scans were measured and the mean value was cakulated automatically. RESULTS: The correlation coefficient of skin thickness and age was -0.121(ns), DXA BMD(bone mineral density) and age was -0.420(P<0.01), skin thickness and DXA BMD L2-L4 was 0.181(P<0.05). Skin thickness was significantly correlated with body weight(correlation coefficient 0.254, P<0.01) and BMI(correlation coefficient 0.195, P<0.01). Furthermore, the mean and standard deviation of skin thickness in normal BMD group was 0.94+-0.021mm, osteopenic group was 0.92+-0.006mm, and osteoporotic group was 0.89+-0.018mm. There was statistically significant difference in the mean values of skin thickness between the three groups even adjusted with age and BMI(P<0.05). The mean and standard deviation of skin tbickness of healthy 20-40 year old women was 1.11+-0,023mm and their mean and standard deviation of L2-L4 mean BMD was 1.17+-0.145mg/cm2. The diagnostic predictability of skin thickness less than 1mm as the risk of osteoporosis(BMD T score less than -1.0) was evaluated. The sensitivity and the specificity of skin thickness less than 1mm being osteoporotic were 78,2% and 57.8% respectively. The positive and negative predictive value of the skin thickness less than 1mm being osteoporotic were 82.2% and 36.5% respectively. CONCLUSION: This study indicate that the skin thickaess measured with the ultrasound method show good correlatian with the bone density measured with conventional DXA at the lumbar vertebra and the skin thickness less than 1mm on the medial side of the opper arm is relatively sensitive in diagnosing osteoporosis risk in Korean women. The authors suggested that a large randomized control study to define the relationship between the skin thickness and the other determinants of bone turnover in the near future.
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Renin Release by Adenosine Agosists and Antagonists in Two-Kidney One Clip Goldblatt Hypertensive Rats.
Young Jin Choi, Sun Hee Kim, Kyoung Woo Cho, Jong Huh, Kyung Hwan Seol
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(1):67-76.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
In two-kidney one clip Goldbaltt hypertensive rats(2K1C GHR), clipped kidney may be exposed to low pressure and unclipped kidney to high pressure. In addition, both kidneys may have a different amount of adenosine which is increased by ischemia and plays an important role for renin release. The aim of this study was to invstigate the responsmiveness for renin release to adenosine agonists and antagonist in clipped and unclipped kidney of 2K1C GHR. METHODS: Emplying kidney slices from both unclipped and unclipped kidney of 2K1C GHR, the alteration by adenosine agonists and antagonist of renin release was studied. RESULTS: The renal renin content and basal renin release from unclipped kidney slices were suppressed, whereas those from clipped kidney were augmented Adenosine Al receptor agonist, cyclohexyladenosne(CHA), phenylisopropyl adenosine(PIA) and adenosine caused a decrease in renin release from clipped kidney slices. Adenosine A2 receptor agonist, NECA, and nonspecific adenosine receptor aganist, 2-chloroadenosine(CA) caused an increase in renin release from clipped kidney slices. Adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline(8-PT) caused an increase in renin release from clipped kidney slices. In unclipped kidney, however, the renin release in response to NECA, CA or 8-PT was reversed and the decreasing effect of renin release to CHA and adenosine was slightly inereased. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the responsiveness of adenosine receptors, which may participate in renin release is modified in clipped and unclipped kidney of 2K1C GHR.
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Case Reports
Two Cases of Cushing's Disease Due to Large Pituitary ACTH Secreting Tumor.
Hong Seung Kim, Choon Hee Chung, Mee Yeon Cho, Young Goo Shin, Il Hoe Kim, Seok Woo Yang, Jang Young Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(1):83-93.   Published online January 1, 2001
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  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Cushing's syndrome that is caused by an adenoma of the corticotrape cells of the anterior pituitay or, rarely, by couticotrope hyperplasia is refered to as Cushing's disease. Cushings disease is usually characterized by chronic, moderate hypersecretion of ACTH and other POMC derived peptide. Most patients have ACTH-secreting anterior pituitary corticotrope microadenomas, but a small minority have a pituitary macroadenoma. We recently experenced two cases of Cushings disease due to pituitary macroadenoma. and report this cases with review of literatures.
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A Case of Cughing's Disease which Responded to the Combined Treatment of Ketoconazole and Octreotide.
Chan Soo Shin, Chang Hoon Yim, Jae Jun Koh, Sung Yeon Kim, Bo Yeon Cho, Hong Gyu Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(1):94-98.   Published online January 1, 2001
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The treatment of choice for Cushing's disease is surgical removal of tumor, the source of ACTH overproduction. In occasional patients in whom a surgical approach including total adrenalectomy is not feasible or surgical removal of tumor is not complete, medical treatment may be necessary because pituitary irradiation requires a long 1ag time to remission. Although ketoconazole, an imidazole derivative with inhibitory activity on adrenal steroidogenesis has been reported to be effective in the treatment of Cushing's disease, the limited effectiveness in lowering very high level of cortisol and occasional hepatotoxicity restrains its wide use. In this report, we describe a woman with Cushing's disease due to pituitary microadenoma. Transsphenoidal pituitary adenomeetomy followed by ketoconzole treatment had been unsuccessful in achieving remission of the disease, but combined treatment with ketoconazole and octreotide accomplished successful reduction in cortisol production.
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A Case of Adult Fanconi Syndrome and Osteomalacia associated with x-Light Chain Monoclonal Gammopathy.
Chul Hee Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Shi Jung Chung, Juog Min Ko, Soo Kil Park, Woo Kun Kim, Ki Soo Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(1):99-107.   Published online January 1, 2001
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The Fanconi syndrome is a complex tubulopathy, which is characterized by urinary hyperexcretion of amino acids of all classes, phosphate, glucose, bicarbonate, calkium, potassium, and otherions, and proteins with molecular weights under 50,000 daltons. This metabolic disease leads to hypophospatemia, hypokalemia, growth failure, metabolic acidasis, and rickets/osteomalacia. Fanconi syndrome may be inherited or acqulred. Most cases of adult Fanconi syndrome are acquired, and the acquired syndrome is associated with thermal burns, exposure to heavy metals or drugs, vitmnin D deficiency, renal transplantation, or light chain deposition. The most common cause of adult Fanconi syndrome is multiple myeloma. We ribe here a case of adult Fanconi syndrome and osteomalacia associated with x-light chain monoclonal gammopathy. A 47-year-old woman presented with multiple bane pain and proximal muscle weakness for 2 years. Laboratory findmgs showed hypophosphatemia, mild hypocalcemia, marked elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase, metabolic acidosis, low 25-OH- vitamm D level and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Urinary excretion of protein, uric acid, phosphate, and glucose was mcreased, and tubular reabsorption of phosphate was decreased to 50%. Protein immunofixation electrophoresis of serum and urine showed x-light chain type monoclonal gammopathy. Bone marrow examination was normal except moderate elevation of plasma cell component(8.8%). The skeletal radiography showed fractures of both lower ribs and pseudofracture in right femoral lesser trochanter. We treated the patient with calcium, 1.25-(OH)2-vitamin D, phosphorus, bicarbonate, and potassium, and her clinical symptoms were gradually relieved.
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A Case of McCunt-Albright Syndrome Associated with Acremegaly and Fibrous Dysplasia.
Jung Guk Kim, Sung Woo Ha, Sang Won Chung, Seong Mo Koo, Jae Tae Lee, Kyu Bo Lee, Yong Sun Kim, Sam Kwon, Bo Wan Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(1):108-114.   Published online January 1, 2001
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Acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia have been described in association with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. The pathogenic mechanisms of this endocrinopathy are not clear. We experienced a 19-year-old male with hypersecretion of GH, hyperprolactinemia and fibrous dysplasia. He was referred for evaluation of suspected acromegaly. He had no skin pigmentation. Plasma GH, PRL, somatomedin-C, LH, FSH, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, T3, T4, TSH and cortisol were measured. Among those, the levels of plasma GH, PRL and somatomedin-C were high. Serum alkaline phosphatase was increased. OGTT did not suppress plasma OH concentration and GH showed paradoxical response to TRH and LHRH. GH was suppressed after a test-dose of somatastatin and bromocriptine. Brain MRI demonstrated a mass lesion in sella turcica and another mass lesions in nasal cavity and posterior occipital bone. Whole body bone scan revealed increased uptake in skull, nasal bone, both 9th posterior rib, both femurs, both tibias, left scapular and pelvic bone. These fmdings were consistent with bone tumor such as fibrous dysplasia. We report a case with incomplete MeCune-Albright syndrome including acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia.
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A Case of Type II Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome: Acute adrenal crisis presented as the first manifestation of Addison's disease in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis and hypgonadism.
Young Sook Lee, Jong Min Lee, Hyun Ok Park, Sung Kyu Park, Sung Ro Yoon, Seok Young Kim, Bong Yeon Cha, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son, Sung Koo Kang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(1):115-120.   Published online January 1, 2001
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Type II autoimmune polyglandular syndrome typically presents in adulthood. Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction are the most frequent manifestations. Addison's disease is the third major endocrine component of this disorder. In this report, we described a thirty-two year-old male patient who had hypogonadism, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, and mild Addison's disease presenting its first manifestation as an acute adrenal crisis due to diabetic ketoacidosis. The ACTH concentration will be elevated early in the course of Addisons disease even before a significant reduction in the basal cortisol level or its response to exogenous ACTH occurs. Therefore, plasma ACTH measurements serve as a valuable screening study for Addisons disease.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism