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Volume 13(4); December 1998
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Original Articles
Clinical Effects of E. cole Derived Authentic REcombinant Human Growth Hormone(DA-3002) in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency.
Se Won Yang, Byung Chul Lee, Chul Woo Ko, Duk Hee Kim, Han Wook Yoo, Woo Young Chung
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):526-535.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Recently authentic human growth hormone(hGH) has produced in the E coli K-12, W3110 by recombinant DNA tecbnology in Korea In this paper, the clinical efficacy and immunogenicity of this GH was shdied in 38 children with growth hormone deficiency during therapy of 1 year. METHODS: The subjects of this study were aged 4.9-13.9 years, diagnosed by failure of plasma GH to respond to insulin-induced hypoglycemia, arginine and/or L-dopa loading and height below -2 standard deviation of mean for their chronological age. Each patient received GH 0.5-0.7IU/kg/week subcutaneously in 6-7 divided doses. During treatment, vital signs, height, body weight and bone age were checked every 3 months. Complete blood count, urinalysis, blood chemistry and thyroid hormone were checked before and every 6 months. The measurement of serum IGF-1 level and antibody against hGH were performed before and every 6 months during therapy of I year. RESULT: The height velocities significantly increased from 3.3 +/- 1.5cm/year to 10.1 +/- 2.5 and 9.0 +/- 1.8cm/year at 6 and 12 months of therapy, respectively. The height standard deviation score for chronological age were significantly improved from -2.141.50 to -1.74 +/- 1.43 and -1.54 +/- 1.38 at 6 and 12 months of therapy with increasing ratio of bone age to chronological age from 0.72 +/- 0.15 at pretreatment to 0.76 +/- 0.15 at 6 month, 0.79 +/- 0.16 at 12 month of therapy. The plasma IGF-1 level significantly increased during treatment. One of 36 patients(2.8%) showed positive antibody against hGH after 1 year of treatment. During therapy of 1 year, unwanted and remarkable clinical side effect were not observed in all subjects. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that this E. coli derived authentic recombinant growth hormone is very effective in stimulating linear growth in children with growth hormone deficiency.
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Thyrotropin Suppresses INF-r Mediated Gene Expression by Inhibiting Signal Transducer and Activation of Transcription 1(STAT1) Activity in FRTL-5 Cells.
Min Ho Song, Young Kun Kim, Heung Kyu Ro, Eun Shin Park, Soon Hee Yoo, Ho Kim, Kang Wook Lee, Hee Jung Han, Won Chan Joo, Jin Ho Won, Kyu Lim, Oh Yoo Kwon
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):536-553.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
The proinflammatory cytokine, IFN-y has been shown to exert pleiotropic effects in a variety of pathophysiologic conditions in autoimmune thyroid disease. The thyrocyte response to IFN-y is mediated two distinct classes of proteins, Janus kinases(Jakl and Jak2) and Signal Transducers and Activation of Transcription(STATl). The activation of STAT 1 is involved in the regulation of many interferon stimulated genes, such as MHC class II, intercellular adhesion molecules-1(ICAM-1) and MHC class II transactivator(CIITA) after the binding to the GASgFN- pactivated site) of the gene promoters. Recently we found TSH/forskolin inhibits IFN-y stimulated maximal expression of ICAM-1 in FRTL-5 cell. IFN-y action is localized between -175 bp and -97 bp from the start of translation of ICAM-1 gene which contains regulatory elements known to be involved in IFN-y action in other eukaryotic cells, palindromic IFN-y activated site(GAS)(5-TTTCCGGGAAA-3) which could bind STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, STAT6. Furthermore, the addition of TSH and forskolin causes a decrease in ICAM-1 promoter activity and its action was localized in GAS. These findings suggested TSH/cAMP signaling pathways downregulate IFN-y activated Janus kinase-STAT signaling path. We wanted to explore the possible involvement of elevated cAMP in the negative regulation of IFN-y induced STAT1 activation in thyroid cells. METHOD: We made several 5-deletion constructs of rat ICAM-1 promoter and analyzed the promoter activities by measuring the luciferase activity after tranfection into FRTL-5 cells. The protein/DNA complex was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift analysis using labeled oligonucleotide. We checked the level of total and phosphorylated STATl protein by immunoblot analysis using specific antibodies. RESULTS: Stimulation of IFN-y in FRTL-5 cells resulted in rapid activation of STATl/DNA binding activity, which was apparent after several minute of stimulation, maintains its activity until 48 h. Incubation of cells with TSH result in suppression of IFN-p mediated STAT1/DNA binding activity throughout the time course of activation by IFN-y. Addition of TSH into 5H maintained FRTL-5 cells did not change the total amount of latent STAT1 amount and also not affect IFN-y mediated production of total STAT1 until 4 h. IFN-y(100 U/mL) rapidly induced phosphorylation of STAT1 within 30 min. and maintained its level without significant change until 48 hours. Cells treated with TSH dramatically lowered the level of IFN-y induced production and phosphorylation of STAT1 after 12 h, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h but TSH had no effect on the level of phosphorylated STATl within 4 h after IFN-y stimulation. The proteasome inhibitor, MG132 and phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate did not block the TSH or forskolin mediated downregulation of phosphorylated STAT1. CONCLUSION: These results indicate a regulatory mechanism which TSH signaling can modulate the prolonged activation of Jak/Stat by IFN-y. We identified one of mechanisms related to TSH mediated negative suppression of the ICAM-1 gene; TSH/cAMP signaling pathways downregulate the cytokine activated Janus kinase-STAT signaling path.
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Antibody-dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxitity as a Prognostic Indicator in the Medical Treatment of Graves' Disease.
Kwan Woo Lee, Young Goo Shin, Hye Rim Ro, Sung Kyu Lee, Yun Suk Chung, Hyun Man Kim, Yoon Jung Kim, Eun Kyung Hong, Bong Nam Chae
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):554-562.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
The several forms of treatment of Graves disease-thyroidectomy, antithyroid drugs and radioiodide therapy-are in wide use now. But which therapy is best is a matter of debate. Some authors reported that in patients who underwent thyroidectomy, higher titers of serum antimicrosomal antibody were associated with 1) higher formation rates of germinal centers, 2) more lymphocyte infiltration in the thyroid tissue, 3) higher incidence of hypothyroidism, and 4) lower incidence of recurrence. We were interested in the relationship of thyroid autoantibody titers, ADCC(antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) activity and the clinical response to antithyroid medication. METHODS: We measured ADCC activities from patients in Graves disease(n-48), Hashimoto thyroiditis(n=17) and normal control(n=9). The patients of Graves disease were followed up for more than 1 year, and they were grouped into A(n=17, well responsed group to antithyroid medication) and B(n=31, poorly responsed group). We examined ADCC activities of patients' sera by chromium release assay. RESULTS: 1) Mean age of patients with Graves disease was 34.4210.4 years and 15 patients were male(31%). 2) Results of thyroid function tests of the Graves' patients were T 585.9 +/- 255.3 ng/dL, T4 21.3 +/- 12.2 mg/dL, TSH 0.11 +/- 0.06mIU/mL. Concentrations of antimicrosomal antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody and thyrotropin binding inhibitory immunoglobulin were 1279.1 +/- 1486.7 IU/mL, 488.1 +/- 751.1 IU/mL, and 38.5 +/- 33.4U/L respectively. 3) There was no significant difference between levels of thyroid hormones or concentrations of thyroid autoantibodies and ADCC activities in graves patients. 4) The ADCC activity of the Graves patient group(24.49%) was significantly higher than that of the normal control group(3.76%), and significantly lower than that of the Hashimotos thyroiditis group(36.34%). 5) There was no significant difference in ADCC activity between group A(18.24 +/- 13.44%) and B(27.91 +20.02%). CONCLUSION: From this results, we suggested that ADCC activity seems to be no value as a prognostic factor in predicting the response to antithyroid drugs in Graves disease patients. But, further studies, larger number of patients and long-term follow up, are needed.
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Clinical Features of Ectopic Thyroid Gland.
Jin Chul Park, Jung Hyun Oh, Sang Yub Nam, Ji Sung Yoon, Kyu Jang Won, In Ho Cho, Hyung Woo Lee, Choong Ki Lee, Jae Tae Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):563-571.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Ectopic thyroid gland is relatively rare condition and a developmental anomaly characterized by an aggregated of thyroid tissue in the midline anywhere from the base of the tongue to the mediastinum. The role of ectopic thyroid in the pathogenesis of non-goitrous sporadic cretinism and primary hypothyroidism has been emphasized. 19 cases of ectopic thyroid for 12 years was presented with Tc-pertechnetate or radioactive iodine, which were diagnosed by scintigraphy. METHODS: We wish to report these 19 cases and 12 cases of brief review of literatures on the incidence, etiology and development, symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment of ectopic thyroid gland was done. RESULTS: The most frequent incidental age was between the age 1 year and 29 years. And the frequency of ectopic thyroid was about 7 times more common in female(27 cases) than in male(4 cases). The location of ectopic thyroid were found to be lingual in 18 cases, sublingual in 9 cases, prelaryngeal in 1 case, and combine with lingual and sublingual in 3 cases. In chief complaints, palpable mass was most common and there were foreign body sensation on throat, dysphagia, dysphonia, and hoarseness. In 15 cases of hypothyroidism, l2 cases were taken thyroid hormone replacement therapy, 1 case was removed ectopic thyroid gland. In 2 of 10 cases of euthyroidism, replacement of thyroid hormone were done and 2 cases were removed ectopic thyroid gland, in 6 cases of unknown thyroid function, 1 case was removed ectopic thyroid gland and 131I therapy was done in 1 case, and others were observed with following up thyroid function test. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the long terms thyroid function test, thyroglossal duct eyst and malignant change in ectopic thyroid tissue when finding the ectopic thyroid in thyroid scintigraphy were recommended highly.
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Technetium-99m sestamibi whole Body Scintigraphy in Postoperative Follow-up of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.
Hong Kyu Kim, Eun Sook Kim, Young Ki Song, Jin Sook Ryu, Dae Hyuk Moon
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):572-579.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Recently technetium-99m sestamibi (99mTc MIBI), which dose not require withdrawal of thyroid hormone, has been used for imaging of thyroid carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical usefulness of Tc MIBI scintigraphy after total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma. The results were compared with those of standard 131I scintigraphy. METHODS: One hundred twelve patients with a median age of 44 years (range, 14-76 years) were included in the study. After optimal endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone stimulation (>50 mIU/mL), whole body scintigraphy using 4 mCi of 'I and 20 mCi of Tc sestamibi were done simultaneously. Concomitantly serum thyroglobulin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody levels were checked. If abnormal findings on any of the scintigraphic methods or high levels of thyroglobulin (> 10ng/mL) were detected, diagnostic imaging studies were done to confirm the existence of the disease. And high dose (150-200 mCi) 'I was administered as therapy and then whole body scans were performed again after the therapy. The presence or absence of thyroid cancer was established by pathologic, radiologic, and/or high dose I scan findings. RESULTS: In 11 patients, Tc MIBI scan revealed positive accumulations which were not found on 131I scan, of whom 6 had elevated thyroglobulin levels. In these cases, 5 cases were interpreted to have normal thyroid remnant and 6 cases showed pathologic findings (2 lung, 1 lymph node, 1 lung and lymph node, 1 local recurrent cancer, and 1 false positive accumulation of 99mTc MIBI). Metastasis or residual cancer were confirmed histologically in 1 and radiologically in 4 cases. Negative 99mTc MIBI scans, despite of positive I scans, occurred in 9 patients, of whom 2 had abnormal thyroglobulin levels. Seven cases were interpreted to have thyroid remnant, 2 cases were confirmed to have lung metastasis, and another one was misinterpreted due to breast shadow. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these results suggest that 99mTc MIBI scan may have similar sensitivity and specificity for the detection of residual or metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The 99mTc MIBI scan, especially in cases of negative 131I scan despite of abnormal thyroglobulin levels, can be used as a very useful complementary diagnostic tool.
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The Effect of Low Dose and High Dose ACTH in the Evaluation of Adrenal Function.
Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Sung Woo Park, Jae Hwan Jee, Hyun Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myoung Yoo, Moon Ki Choi
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):580-589.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Pharmacological ACTH test provide information only about the ability of the adrenal gland to respond to unusual stimuli and may not reflect the daily cortisol secretion. There were some controversies in the diagnosis of mild adrenal insufficiency by using a pharmacological dose of ACTH. The purpose of the present study was to assess and compare the effect of low dose 1 pg ACTH and high dose 249 pg ACTH in the evaluation of adrenal function. The intravenous injection of a pharmacological dose(250 pg) of ACTH has been used as a standard test in the initial assessment of adrenal function. So we low dose ACTH to evaluate the adrenal function and compare the result of high dose ACTH. METHOD: Basal serum cortisol sampling was done at 2:00 p.m.. And after 1 pg ACTH iv bolus injection, cortisol sampling was done at 20, 30, 45 and 60 min respectively. On the next day same procedure was repeated at same time, but 249 mg ACTH was given instead of the low dose. Normal adrenal function was diagnosed with the criteria of stimulated serum cortisol concentration over 20 mg/dL. Total 65 patients took part in this study. Three hypopituitarism patients and one Addisons disease were included. Sixty-one patients had the history of glucocorticoid ingestion or had physical findings of cushingoid features with symptoms suggest the adrenal insufficiency. RESULTS: Sixteen patients showed normal response to both low dose and high dose ACTH. Thirty-six patients were not stimulated to both low dose and high dose ACTH. The remaining thirteen patients revealed normal response to high dose ACTH, but not to low dose ACTH. CONCLUSION: It appears that low dose ACTH stimulation test is more sensitive and specific than high dose ACTH and is capable of revealing mild adrenal insufficiency.
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Effects of B3-adrenergic Receptor Gene Mutation on the Body Fat Distribution and Weight Loss in Obese Subjects.
Sung Kil Lim, Young Duk Song, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Kyung Rae Kim, Seok Won Park, Seok Joo Kwon, Eun Young Cho, Jong Ho Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):590-600.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Recently, missense mutation of the B3-adrenergic receptor gene has been shown to be associated with early onset of type 2 diabetes, abdominal obesity and an increased capacity to gain weight. This study was performed to investigate the effects of Trp64Arg mutation in the B3-adrenergic receptor gene on body fat distribution and weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Determination of the B3-adrenergic receptor gene mutation with restriction enzyme digestion method, anthropometry, various biochemical studies, including oral glucose tolerance test were performed in 99 obese and 35 control subjects. Body fat distributions were also evaluated by computerized tomography before and after weight-reduction program. RESULTS: I) There were no differences in the frequencies of Trp64Arg mutation in the B3-adrenergic receptor gene between obese and control subjects (15.2 vs 12.9 %). 2) The obese subjects with Trp64Arg mutation had higher waist to hip circumference ratio(WHR) (0.93 +/- 0.05 vs 0.87 +/- 0.04, p<0.001), visceral fat area (115.0 +/- 25.9 vs 86.4 +/- 41.4 cm, p=0.01), but decreased plasma free fatty acid (618.0 +/- 163.1 vs 817.5 +/- 248.2 pEq/L, p=0.001), and triglyceride level (118.7 +/- 36.2 vs 158.4 +/- 105.8 mg/dL, p=0.015) than those without mutation. 3) The obese subjects with Trp64Arg mutation had smaller decreases in weight (-3.4 vs -5.1 kg, p<0.001), body fat content (-2.1 vs -3.8 %, p<0.001), WHR (-0.01 vs -0.03, p=0.025), and abdominal fat masses (total, subcutaneous, and visceral fat) after weight-reduction program than those without mutation. CONCLUSION: Trp64Arg mutation in the B3-adrenergic receptor gene might be one of genetic loci contributing to central obesity and a predictor of difficulty in losing weight in obese subjects.
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Transcriptional REpression of Vimentin Gene During All-TTrans Retinoic Acid-Induced Differentiation of HL-60 Cells.
Kyu Lim, Do Won Kwon, Seung Min Kim, Kyung Ah Yoon, Mi Young Son, Myoung Sun Lee, Jong Il Park, Wan Hee Yoon, Byung Doo Hwang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):601-611.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Vimentin is the major intermediate-size filament in the cytoplasm of cells from mesenchymal origin. The HL-60 cell is a unique human leukemic cell line capable of terminal differentiation with several chemical inducers, and then the cell line becomes a fre#quently described model system for cell differentiation in vitro. Vimentin mRNA is reduced during all-trans retinoic acid (retinoic acid) -dependent differentication but increased by 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). In this paper, we have investigated on the mechanism of transcriptional repression of vimentin gene during retinoic acid-dependent differentication of HL-60 cell. METHODS: HL-60 cells were grown in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and antibiotics in a humidified 5% CO at 37C. Total RNA was prepared by a modification of the method of Karlinsey et al. Northern blot hybridization was performed by the method of Virca et al. EcoRI fragment of pVIM-GEM was used as probe for vimentin mRNA. DNA mobility shift assay was performed by the method of Lim et al. End labeled DNA probe (Upper strand, 5-CGCITGATGAGTCAGCCG-3) for AP-1 binding activity was mixed with nuclear extracts in a 20 pL reaction volume containing 300 mM KCI, 60 mM HEPES, pH 7.9, 25mM MgC1, 1mM EDTA, 1mM DTT, 60% glycerol, and 2 pg of poly[dI-dC]. RESULTS: The level of vimentin mRNA was decreased at 12 hours after retinoic acid treatment, and not detected at 48 hours. The level of vimentin mRNA was reduced in proportion to concentration of retinoic acid, Retinoic acid-reduced vimentin mRNA was no change in cells treated with cycloheximide. Retinoic acid-dependent decrease of vimentin mRNA was partially recovered by staurosporin pretreatment. In DNA mobility shift assay, AP-1 binding activity was reduced at 48 hr during retinoic acid-induced differentiation. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the transcriptional repression of vimentin gene during retinoic acid-induced differentiation in HL-60 cells is correlated with reduction of DNA binding activity of AP-1.
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Case Reports
Ensulin Autoimmune Syndrome in a Patient with Methimazole-Treated Graves' Disease: A Case report.
Joong Kyu Lim, Yong An Woo, Sung Jin Kang, Sung Sik Yoo, Kun Young Hong, Soon Ho Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):612-616.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) includes fasting or reactive hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and the presence of insulin-binding antibodies in patients who have never been exposed to exogenous insulin. This report concems a 29-year-old male patient with Graves disease who had history of having taken methimazole for two months, without any consequence, 6 months previously. However, when methimazole was administered again for three weeks, the patient suffered hypoglycemia during the next fourth week. He denied history of diabetes mellitus (DM), of taking any oral hypoglycemic agent or of having received insulin injection. Laboratory data showed total serum insulin level > 300 pu/mL, C-peptide reactivity (CPR) 8.0ng/mL and insulin antibody 89%. After stopping methimazole, he was treated with radioiodine (131I). There was no episode of hypoglycemic attack during 8 months of follow-up.
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A Case of Methimazole Induced Agranulocytosis Complicated with Deep Neck Abscess.
Kwan Woo Lee, Sung Kyu Lee, Yun Suk Chung, Hyun Man Kim, Yoon Jung Kim, Eun Kyung Hong, Bong Nam Chae, Jin Ho Lee, Chang Young Ha, Joon Sung Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):617-621.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The thiourea derivatives, propylthiouracil and methimazole are in widespread use for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. The untoward side effects of these drugs are not infrequent and agranulocytosis is the most serious side effect them. We observed one case of methimazole induced agranulocytosis complicated by deep neck abscess. A 54-year-old woman was admitted because of fever, chilling and sore throat for 1 week. The symptom was developed after receiving methimazole 30mg daily day due to hyperthyroidism during last 3 months. Physical examination revealed hyperemic, enlarged tonsils and tender swelling of the right lower neck The peripheral blood total leukoeyte count was 1,500/mm' (absolute neutrophil count, ANC 9) and a peripheral blood smear revealed few neutrophil. The patient was administered G-CSF 2 mg/kg daily, and on the fifth day of hospitalization, fever subsided and ANC increased to 3,431. On the 11th day, fever developed again and the tenderness and swelling in both lower neck area were aggrevated. Computed tomography of the neck was performed, and revealed a large deep neck abscess. After pus aspiration and antibiotics therapy, the neck abscess was disappeared.
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A Case of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia & Pericardial Effusion Developed in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Patient.
Soon Jib Yoo, Moo Il Kang, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son, Sung Koo Kang, Bong Yeon Cha, Joo Yeon Choi, Kyung Ah Yoh, Ji Won Park, Jong Ryool Jin
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):622-628.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Hashimotos thyroiditis has been associated with a various autoimmune disorders. The immunologic mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders have not always been thought to be the same. Although it was demonstrated that there were high prevalence of abnormal thyroid function and autoantibody in autoimmune hemolytic anemia(AIHA) and Fisher-Evans syndrome(FES), AIHA combined with Hashimotos thyroiditis is rare in Korean literature. It was suggested that a common immunologic mechanism may be involved in the pathogenesis of both disease and the possibility of multiple autoimmune syndrome might present in autoimmune hematologic disorders. We experienced a 74-year old woman with a 12-year history of a hypothyroidism due to Hashimotos thyroiditis was hospitalized with sudden development of warm AIHA with positive Direct & Indirect Coombs test and pericardial effusion. Her thyroid function test showed subclinical hypothyroidism with the maintenance dosage of levothyroxine(100pg/day). With glucocorticoid and plasmapheresis, AIHA and pericardial effusion were corrected successfully. It is suggested that the prudent immunologic study is needed for the anemia developed in patients with Hashimotos thyroiditis with or without hypothyroidism.
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A Case of Thyrotoxicosis During Lithium Therapy.
Young Sik Choi, Yo Han Park, Joon Chul Pyun, Dal Soo Park, Chul Hee Lee, Hyo KYun Chung, Hyun Joo Kim, Soo Yeol Ahn, Jin Sook Jun, Yong Chang Oh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):629-633.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Lithium has been established as a drug useful for the treatment of manic depressive disorder. It is now well recognized that long-term administration of this drug is associated with various antithyroid effects such as goiter, and subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. However, it has been associated less commonly with thyrotoxicosis. Recently we experienced a case of thyroitoxicosis during lithium therapy. A 24-year-old man treated with lithium carbonate 900 mg-1,200 mg/day for manic-depressive illness for four weeks. He then complained of nervousness, palpitation, tremor, heat intolerance, and sweating. Neck pain was not noted. At that time the results of thyroid function test were consistent with hyperthyroidism: T3 568.8 ng/dL, TSH 0.01 mU/mL, FT4 6.0 ng/dL, but 24 hr radioiodine uptake was 0.3%. We suspected this case as lithium induced thyrotoxicosis and discontinued lithium administration. After discontinuation of lithium thyrotoxic symptoms were subsided. One month later, thyroid hormon levels became normalized: T 100.2 ng/dL, TSH 0.06 mU/mL, FT4 0.97 ng/dL and 24hr radioiodine uptake was 16%. We report this case with review of literatures.
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Original Article
Concurrent Medullay and Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid.
Seok Jun Hong, Kyung Yub Gong, Young Ki Song, Jin Sook Ryu, Ki Soo Kim, Jung Hee Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):634-639.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The origins of medullary carcinoma and papillary carcinoma of thyroid are embryologically different. We report a case of simultaneous occurrence of medullary carcinoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in the same thyroid gland. In this case, the occurrence of the two tumors may be a coincidence, does not have embryological or genetical significance.
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Case Reports
2 Cases of Peripheral Nerve Tumors of Anterior Neck Simulating Thyroid Nodule.
Sung Kil Lim, Young Duk Song, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Kyung Rae Kim, Soo Yeon Nam, Byung Ki Choi, Sang Soo Chung, Kyung Wook Kim, So Rae Choi
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):640-645.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Peripheral nerve tumors are mostly benign and can arise on any nerve trunk or twig. Although peripheral nerve tumors can occur anywhere in the body, including the spinal roots and cauda equina, many cases are subcutaneous in location and present as a soft swelling, sometimes with a purplish discoloration of skin. There are two major catagories, schwannoma(neurilemmoma), and neurofibroma. Schwannomas are usually solitary and grow in the nerve sheath, rendering them relatively easy to dissect free. In contrast, neurofibromas tend to be multiple, grow in the endoneural substance, which renders them difficult to dissect, may undergo malignant changes, and are the hallmark of von Recklinghausens neurofibromatosis. Masses in the anterior part of neck may be initially thought to be thyroid nodule and then other cervical masses should be considered. The diagnosis rests on clinical suspicion and diagnostic support may be obtained by CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and substraction angiography in the literature. After imaging, fine needle aspiration for cytology may be helpful. If they are resected unrecognized and/or without regard to their nerve origin, major and permanent nerve defects can unnecessarily occur. We experienced 2 cases of peripheral nerve tumors of anterior neck simulating a thyroid nodule.
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A Case of Isolated ACTH Deficiency Manifestated by Atrial Fibrillation and Hypoglycemia.
Won Seob Kim, Ki Se Lee, Sun Kyung Song, In Suk Seo, Soo Jin Choi, Dong Yoon Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):646-651.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Isolated ACTH deficiency is a rare cause of secondary adrenocortical insufficiency caused by the defect of synthesis or release of ACTH in pituitary gland. The clinical presentation can be simiilar to that of primary adrenal insufficiency, but there is a greater tendency for hypoglycemia and absence of hyperpigmentation. The patient, 80 year-old female, was admitted in chief complaint of deteriorated mental states. On admission, serum sodium was 127mEq/L, potassium 4.4mEq/L, blood glucose 27mg/dL and on routine E.C.G. was atrial fibrillation was revealed. The basal morning serum cortisol level was 9.97 pg/dL it dosent respond to insulin-induced hypoglycemia enoughly, but other pituitary functions were intact in pituitary cocktail stimulation test. In CRH stimulation test, there was no remarkable response in serum ACTH and cortisol level. Brain MRI failed to reveal any anatomic abnormalities of the sellar or suprasellar area consistent with the defect of pituitary ACTH secretion. This case was a isolated ACTH deficiency, So, we conclude that associated with atrail fibrillation and hypoglycemia.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism