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Volume 18(3); June 2003
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Review Articles
Current Understanding of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor delta.
Jungyeob Ham, Dong Hwan Won, Heonjoong Kang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(3):239-249.   Published online June 1, 2003
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  • 17 Download
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No abstract available.
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Calcium Sensing Receptor.
Sang Wan Kim, Chan Soo Shin
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(3):250-260.   Published online June 1, 2003
  • 886 View
  • 16 Download
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No abstract available.
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From Bench to Clinic: PTH.
Sung Kil Lim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(3):261-267.   Published online June 1, 2003
  • 799 View
  • 17 Download
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No abstract available.
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Expression and Rearrangement of RET in Thyroid Papillary Cancer.
Do Joon Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(3):268-271.   Published online June 1, 2003
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No abstract available.
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Original Articles
Interaction of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide and Angiotensin II on Aldosterone Production in Human Adrenocortical H295R Cells.
Seong Yeon Kim, Sang Wan Kim, Young Min Cho, Do Joon Park, Chan Soo Shin, Kyung Soo Park, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kye Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(3):272-282.   Published online June 1, 2003
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BACKGROUND
Evidence is accumulating that aldosterone secretion can be regulated in a paracrine and/or an autocrine manner by several neuropeptides locally released within the adrenal gland. Among neuropeptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is present in high concentration in the human adrenal gland. The purpose of this study was to investigate the action of PACAP and the interaction between PACAP and angiotensin II (AII), the main physiologic aldosterone secretagogue, in aldosterone production in human H295R adrenocortical cells. METHODS: H295R cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of PACAP (10(-11)M~10(-7)M) in the absence or presence of 10(-7)M AII. Aldosterone concentration in the supernatant was determined by RIA. Intracellular cAMP content was measured by RIA and total inositol phosphate (IP) production by anion exchange chromatography. Gene expression of CYP11B2 was studied by RT-PCR. RESULTS: In H295R cells, PACAP stimulated aldosterone production in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation of H295R cells with PACAP in the presence of AII significantly increased aldosterone production, compared with that of PACAP alone. PACAP dose-dependently increased cAMP production, but 10(-7)M AII had no effect on either basal or PACAP-stimulated cAMP production. Total IP production was not affected by PACAP, but was increased by 10(-7)M AII; an increase that was not further increased by addition of PACAP. RT-PCR analysis of H295R cells which were exposed to 10-7M PACAP or 10(-7)M AII showed an increase in CYP11B2 transcript signal. Induction of CYP11B2 mRNA expression in response to treatment with both PACAP and AII was significantly more than that resulting from using PACAP alone. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that PACAP exerts a direct stimulatory effect on aldosterone production through induction of CYP11B2 mRNA expression by adenylate cyclase activation as the main intracellular signal pathway in H295R cells. Furthermore, there may be some additive effects between PACAP and AII on aldosterone production.
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Thyroid Hormone Receptor Dynamics in Thyroid Hormone Response Elements of the Human Type 1 Iodothyronine Deiodinase Gene.
Seong Jin Lee, Cheol young Park, In Kyung Jeong, Eun Gyung Hong, Cheol Soo Choi, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park, P Reed Larsen
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(3):283-295.   Published online June 1, 2003
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BACKGROUND
Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1), the product of the hdio1 gene, is involved in thyroid hormone activation by the deiodination of thyroxine (T4) to form 3, 5, 3'-triiodothyronine (T3). Recent studies have identified two thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) in the 5 flanking region of the hdio1 gene. TRE1, proximal to TRE in the hdio1 gene, consists of a direct repeat of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) binding octamers with 10 bp separating the two TR binding sites. The upstream TRE, TRE2, is a classical direct repeat of retinoid X receptor (RXR)/TR binding half-sites with a 4-bp separation. There are few studies clarifying the TR dynamics in the TRE of a specific gene with or without the exposure of activated thyroid hormone. We evaluated TR binding patterns in the proximal and distal TREs of the hdio1 gene before and after T3 stimulation. METHODS: We employed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technique to investigate the TR-TRE interaction before and after T3 stimulation in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line.Following cross-linking and sonication of the cells, immunoprecipitation was performed overnight at 4degrees C with TR 1, TR 1 and TR 2 antibodies. We analyzed the binding patterns and amounts of TR 1, TR 1 and TR 2 to TRE1 and TRE2 before and after 12 hours stimulation with 100 nM T3 by using conventional and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (RQ-PCR). Reverse transcriptional PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot with TR 1, TR 1 and TR 2 antibodies were performed to measure the levels of hdio1 mRNA and TR 1, TR 1 and TR 2 proteins before and after 12 hours exposure to 100 nM T3. RESULTS: In TRE1, TR 1 binding was significantly decreased after 12 hours stimulation with 100nM T3 (3.74-->1.97, delta=-47.3%, p<0.05), but TR 1 and TR 2 bindings were not detected by conventional PCR and RQ-PCR. Although all TR isoforms were bound to TRE2, the binding patterns were quite different. While TRalpha1 and TR 1 bindings to TRE2 after 12 hours stimulation with 100 nM T3 were significantly decreased (10.41-->3.01, delta=-71.1%, p<0.05; 12.56 --> 2.93, delta=-76.7%, p<0.05, respectively), TR 2 binding was increased but not significantly (9.17 --> 9.84, delta=+7.3%). Total TR bindings in TRE2 were significantly decreased after 12 hours stimulation with 100 nM T3 (32.14 --> 15.78, delta=-50.9%, p<0.05). The TR bindings to TRE1 and TRE2 were not significantly different by the amounts of TR antibodies used during ChIP assays. The levels of hdio1 mRNA were significantly increased, 2.03 times, after 12 hours exposure to 100nM T3 (p<0.001). Western blot showed no significant change of the level of each TR isoform protein before and after 12 hours exposure to 100 nM T3. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the dynamics of TR 1 at proximal TRE (TRE1) and the switching phenomenon of TR isoforms at distal TRE (TRE2) of the hdio1 gene after T3 stimulation. Further investigation, however, is needed to clarify the mechanisms of these observations.
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The Effects of Aging on the Proliferation and Differentiation of Osteoblasts from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
Ki Hyun Baek, Hyun Jung Tae, Ki Won Oh, Won Young Lee, Chung Kee Cho, Soon Yong Kwon, Moo Il Kang, Bong Yun Cha, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son, Sung Koo Kang, Choon Choo Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(3):296-305.   Published online June 1, 2003
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BACKGROUND
Osteoblasts originate from osteoprogenitor cells in bone marrow stroma, termed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or bone marrow stromal cells. Each MSC forms colonies (colony forming units-fibroblasts [CFU-Fs]) when cultured ex vivo. There are some reports about the age-related changes of the number and osteogenic potential of osteoprogenitor cells, but any relationship has not been clearly established in humans. In this study, we counted MSCs using CFU-Fs count and examined the proliferative capacity and differentiation potential of osteoprogenitor cells. Finally, we analyzed how these parameters varied with donor age. METHODS: Bone marrow was obtained from the iliac crest of young (n=6, 27.2+/-8.6 years old) and old (n=10, 57.4+/-6.7 years old) healthy donors. Mononuclear cells, including MSCs, were isolated and cultured in osteogenic medium. In primary culture, we compared the colony-forming efficiency of MSCs between the two groups and determined the matrix calcification. When primary culture showed near confluence, the cells were subcultured. Alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcinexpression by RT-PCR and proliferative potential by MTT assay were examined by the time course of secondary culture. RESULTS: At the 15th day of primary culture, the mean number of CFU-Fs was significantly higher in the younger donors (young: 148.3+/-28.9, old: 54.3+/-9.1, p=0.02) and the mean size of CFU-Fs was also larger in the younger donors than the older donors. However, matrix calcification was not different between the two groups (young: 103.6+/-50.6, old: 114.0+/-56.5, p=NS). In secondary culture, alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the older donors. The younger donors showed peak alkaline phosphatase activity at day 10, while the older donors didn't showed a remarkable peak (young: 935.5+/-115.0U/mg, old: 578.4+/-115.7U/mg, p<0.05). Total cell number as a proliferative index increased progressively during the secondary culture and a significantly greater cell number was noted in the younger donors. Osteocalcin expression was generally upregulated in the younger donors, but this was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that the number of osteoprogenitor cells is decreased during aging and that the proliferative capacity and differentiation potential of osteoprogenitor cells seem to be reduced during aging.
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Case Reports
Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Hyponatremia.
Kyoung Wook Lee, Seong Bin Hong, Seung Baik Han, Bon Ju Jeong, Hwi Ra Park, Eun Sil Kim, Dong Hyo Hyun, Moon Suk Nam, Yong Seong Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(3):306-310.   Published online June 1, 2003
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Hyponatremia is a frequent condition of body fluid and electrolyte imbalance encountered in clinical practice. However, rhabdomyolysis has rarely been reported in association with hyponatremia. We experienced a 56-year-old woman who had developed symptomatic hyponatremia after prolonged nausea and subsequent rhabdomyolysis. Hyponatremia was probably mediated by hypersecretion of antidiuretic hormones.The woman had developed severe hypotonic hyponatremia with an alternation in mental status after suffering from severe nausea and vomiting for x months/years. She recovered with intensive supportive therapy, including hypertonic saline administration. One day after hospitalization, she complained of thigh pains; furthermore her serum creatine phosphokinase level had increased. She was treated with alkaline diuresis. Renal failure or compartment syndrome did not complicate the clinical course. The patient was discharged and returned to her normal daily activities. The possibility of rhabdomyolysis should be considered in patients with acute hyponatremia who have developed muscle pain.
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A Case of Pituitary Tumor Causing Diabetes Insipidus and Associating with Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma in the Bronchus.
Kang Wan Lee, Jong Ryeal Hahm, Mi Yean Kang, Jung Hwa Jung, Gi Dong Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Sun Il Chung
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(3):311-317.   Published online June 1, 2003
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The metastatic tumor occurs in about 6% to 20% of all cases with central diabetes insipidus. Many kinds of cancers such as breast, lung, colon, prostate, leukemia, and lymphoma can metastasize to the pituitary and its stalk. Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma arising in the bronchus is an uncommon disease. It is histologically and ultrastructurally identical to salivary gland adenoid cystic tumor and is regarded as a slowly growing, low graded-malignancy. This is a case report of a 52-year-old woman with diabetes insipidus caused by a pituitary tumor that might have been associated with adenoid cystic carcinoma arising in the bronchus. The patient was diagnosed by water deprivation test, chest CT scan, bronchoscopic biopsy, and brain MRI scan. The water deprivation test showed the patient had central diabetes insipidus, while chest CT scan revealed a lung mass lesion with distal right intermediate bronchial obstruction. The primary malignancy was confirmed by bronchoscopic biopsy. Finally, we confirmed that the patient had a 7mm-sized mass in the posterior pituitary gland and a thickened stalk by brain MRI scan.
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A Case of Renal Cell Carcinoma with Thyroid Metastasis.
Hye Seung Jung, Young Joo Park, Hee Sun Chung, Mee Soo Chang, Tae Hoon Jin, Cheol Soo Choi, Sung Woo Park, Tae Young Kim, Do Joon Park, Bo Youn Cho
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(3):318-324.   Published online June 1, 2003
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Metastatic thyroid cancer is uncommon but must be distinguished from primary thyroid cancer because of the differences in management and prognosis. Although renal cell carcinoma is one of the most common tumors that metastasize to the thyroid gland, such a case has never been reported in Korea. We describe the first case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the thyroid gland. A 66-year-old man presented with a neck mass detected about 6 weeks previously. He had undergone left nephrectomy due to renal cell carcinoma 8 years before and had remained disease-free thereafter. Computed tomography of the neck showed a 5 cm-sized thyroid mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology revealed some malignant cells containing intranuclear inclusions which were assumed to be papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy. Histologic diagnosis of the thyroid mass was metastatic renal cell carcinoma and further evaluation with chest computed tomography showed two enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes suggesting metastases. The previous history of malignancy should be scrutinized when managing a thyroid mass in patients with a prior or concomitant malignancy, and the possibility of metastasis should be carefully considered.
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A Case of Lymphocytic Hypophysitis Presented with Hypoglycemia after Delivery.
Jang Myung Son, Seung Hyun Ko, Yu Bae Ahn, Kang Ju, Jeong Rok Lee, Seong Eun Yang, Ki Ho Song, Ho Young Son, Jeong Su Jun
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(3):325-331.   Published online June 1, 2003
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Lymphocytic hypophysitis, an inflammatory disease of the pituitary gland that is often associated with pregnancy, is caused by autoimmune destruction of the pituitary gland evidenced by diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration of the pituitary gland and some kinds of detectable autoantibodies. We report a case of lymphocytic hypophysitis in a 31-year-old woman presenting with severe hypoglycemia and hyponatremia after delivery. Hormonal study revealed panhypopituitarism and magnetic resonance imaging with enhancement showed the bulging contour of the right side pituitary gland with an ill-defined mass-like lesion and nodular thickening of the stalk. The patient's symptoms and biochemical data improved greatly with replacement of L-thyroxine and glucocorticoid. Partial recovery of panhypopituitarism was also seen. The follow-up tests revealed dramatic resolution of the pituitary lesion.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism