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Volume 9(4); December 1994
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Review Articles
Invasive Fibrous (Riedel's) Thyroiditis.
Yeon Sahng Oh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):273-276.   Published online November 6, 2019
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  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
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Thyroperoxidase in Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders.
Young Kee Shong
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):277-283.   Published online November 6, 2019
  • 1,050 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
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Editorial
The Iodine and the Thyroid Disease.
Kyung Rae Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):284-289.   Published online November 6, 2019
  • 1,113 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
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Original Articles
Clinical Characteristics of Acromegalic Patients in Korea.
In Myung Yang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):290-306.   Published online November 6, 2019
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  • 28 Download
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There was no nation-wide survey for acromegaly in Korea. To elucidate the incidence, clinical characteristics and the current status of diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly in Korea during the period from January 1988 to December 1992, we analyzed the survey protocols of 279 acromegalic patients which had been recorded in 24 university hospitals and 2 general hospitals. The estimated incidence was 1.4 per million individuals. The number of patients is not different in sex and the mean age was 42 years. The half of the patients were diagnosed at their forties and fifties. Enlargement of acral part is the most common sysptom(75%) and the next is dyspnea(69%) followed by headache(54%), excessive sweating(37%), diabetes mellitus(36%), visual disturbance(24%), hypertension(20%). The frequency of lumbar pain, visual disturbance and diabetes mellitus were higher, but that of hirsutism was lower than those reported in weatern studies. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed in only 46% of patients. Thirty four percent of them were diagnosed to have diabetes mellitus and 18% showed glucose intolerance. Forty two percent of patients had hyperphosphatemia and 36% of patients had an increased alkaline phosphatase activity. The GH suppression test by glucose was performed in only 56% of patients. The TRH or LHRH stimulation test was performed in only 29% and 14% of patients, respectively. The paradoxical response to TRH or LHRH was found in 53% and 33% of them, respectively. The somatostatin suppression test was carried out in only 17% of patients and the GH level was suppressed below 5 ng/ml in 49% of them. Bromocriptine suppression test was done in only 21% of patients and the GH level was normalized in 34.5% of them. To identify the location and size of pituitary tumor, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging was performed in only 52% of patients, and 78% of them had macroadenoma. About 10% of patients were not treated at all and 24% and 2% of patients were treated by only medication and radiotherapy, respectively. Normalization of GH level below 5 ng/ml was achieved in only 16.8% of patients who were considered to be cured completely after treatment. These data suggest that the incidence of acromegaly is relatively lower that that of european countries, and there are differences in the frequencies of clinical manifestations in Korean acromegalics. This survey also indicates that some essential diagnostic tests including endocrinologic evaluation were not performed in many cases, and the complete cure rate is significantly lower than that of western countries.
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Analysis of Daily Intake and Urinary Excretion of Iodine normal Control and Patient with Thyroid Disease.
Yong Wook Cho, Young Sun Kim, Seung Ho Baick, Do Yeon Oh, Whyui Joon Kim, Myung Wha Kang, Kyung Sook Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):307-317.   Published online November 6, 2019
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  • 38 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Iodine in physiological dosage is necessary for thyroid hormone. But insufficient or excessive intake of iodine could affect on thyroid function. However, little study is available on the current iodine state in Korea. To evaluate the current state of iodine intake and its effects on thyroid function, we measured the iodine intake, urinary excretion and thyroid status in 67 normal controls and 110 patients with thyroid disease from June 1991 to August 1993.The result were as follows; 1) There were no differences in the physical and daily intake of calorie between controls and patients with thyroid disease. 2) The mean daily intake of iodine was 391.4 ug in normal controls, 695.0 ug in patients with simple goiter, 672.0 ug in hypothyroidism, 453.5 ug in hyperthyroidism, and 297.4 ug in thyroid nodule. 3) The mean urinary iodine excretion was 640 ug/L in normal controls, 875 ug/L in patients with hyperthyroidism, 612 ug/L in thyroid nodule, 563 ug/L in hypothyroidism, and 549 ug/L in simple goiter. 4) There was decreasing tendency of the serum T_3, t_4 and significant increase in TSH concentration in subjects who ingest the dietary iodine above 1000 ug/day compared with the subjects who ingest below 150 ug/day(p<0.05). 5) Subjects who live in coastal area had much intake of iodine(1.8-2.5 times)than those of subjects live in inland area.In conculsion, Korean ingested more iodine than Europian and American but fewer than Japanese. Some of the patients with simple goiter and hypothyroidism patients may associated with excessive ingestion of iodine, but further systemized study will be required.
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The Effect of Iodine on the thyroglobulin Synthesis in Cultured Porcine Thyroid Cells.
Eun Jig Lee, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Kyung Rae Kim, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Mi Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):318-324.   Published online November 6, 2019
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  • 25 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The amount of thyroglobulin synthesized from thyroid cells and stored in colloid space in very important in thyroid hormone synthesis. The thyroglobulin synthesis is mainly regulated by TSH secreted from the pituitary gland. But recently there were some reports about the possibility that iodine regulated the thyroid protein synthesis. So our studied were conducted to determined whether iodine could have inhibitory effect on thyroglobulin synthesis and methimazole could abolish the inhibitory effect of idoine.Porcine thyroid cells were isolated by sequential trypsinization in the presence of EGTA, seeded at high density(1X10^6 cells/cm^2) and cultured. One week later, Nal was added in different concentrations(10^-7, 10^-6, 10^-5, 10^-4M). 24hour medias were collected and checked the amount of thyroglobulin secreted. And also pulse-labeling were performed with[^35S] cysteine/methionine(1-2 uCi/well) for 1 hour at the same conditions. We used 3mM methimazole and 10^-4M NaI to observe the blocking effect of methimazol in iodine.The extracellular thyroglobulin secretion was significantly decreased by iodine in dose dependent manner(82.4%, 80.7%, 76.8% and 73.1% of control). And also intracellular thyroglobulin synthesis was significantly decreased by iodide in dose dependent manner(100.5%, 83.4%, 82.3% and 79.4% of control). The inhibitory effect of iodide was abolished by methimazole(74.7% to 101.3% of control). These data indicate that high iodide inhibit the thyroglobulin synthesis and secretion from the thyroid cells, and furthermore autoregulation by iodide may include thyroglobulin synthesis. And also this effect is dependent on the generation of an organic form of iodine because methimazole abolish the inhibitory effect of iodide.
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Effect of Antiliyolytic Agents on Glueose Metabolism in Thyrotoxic Patients.
Seong Yeon Kim, Kyung Soo Park, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee, Chan Soo Shin, Chang Soon Koh, Hun Ki Min, Tae Geun Oh, Chul Hee Kim, Moon Kyu Lee, Jong Ho Ahn, Kee Up Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):325-331.   Published online November 6, 2019
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  • 18 Download
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Decreased glucose tolerance is often found in patients with thyrotoxicosis but the pathogenetic mechanisms are poorly understood. Since the concentrations of free fatty acid are usually elevated due to increased lipolysis in thyrotoxicosis, the preferential oxidation of the free fatty acids may explain the decreased glucose tolerance in hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether lowering plasma free fatty acid(FFA) by acipimox, a long-acting antilipolytic agent, could affect glucose metabolism in thyrotoxicosis. We performed intravenous glucose tolerance test with acipimox or placebo in 6 untreated thyrotoxicmen and 6 age-and body mass index(BMI)-matched controls. The following results were obtained.1) The basal plasma FFA concentration in thyrotoxic patients were significantly higher than those in controls(997.0+-303.4 uEq/L vs. 290.5+-169.1 uEq/L; p<0.01). 2) Plasma FFA concentrations decreased rapidly with acipimox ingestion in both controls and thyrotoxic patients.3) Plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower with acipimox ingestion than with placebo in thyrotoxic patients from 17min after intravenous glucose load and to the end of the study.4) Plasma insulin concentrations in thyrotoxic patients with acipimox ingestion were higher at 5, 7 min after iv glucose load.5) In thyrotoxic patients, glucose disappearance rate(K_glucose) in acipimox treatment was significantly higher than that in placebo treatment(2.44+-0.84 vs. 1.58+-0.37;p<0.05). 6) K_glucose values were inversely correlated with basal FFA concentrations(r=-0.58, p<0.05). In summary, in thyrotoxic patients with elevated plasma FFA levels, acipimox lowered plasma FFA, which in turn improved glucose tolerance.
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The Effect of Methimazole on the Thyroglobulin Synthesis in Cultured Porcine Thyroid Cells.
Eun Jig Lee, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Kyung Rae Kim, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Mi Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):332-336.   Published online November 6, 2019
  • 1,246 View
  • 26 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The thioureylene drugs, propylthiouracil and methylmercaptoimidazol(MMI), exert their antithyroid effect primarily through inhibition of thyroid peroxidase-catalyzed iodination of thyroglobulin. Recently the interest about the effect to the thyroglobulin synthesis of these drugs have been increasing. So we studied the MMI effect to the thyroglobulin synthesis in cultured porcine thyroid cells. Porcine thyroid cells were isolated by sequential trypsinization in the presence of EGTA, seeded at high density(1X10^6 cells/cm^2) and cultured. One week later, MMI was added in different concentrations(0, 0.2, 1, 5mM) with TSH only or with 4H(b-TSH, Insulin, Transferrin, Hydrocortisone) or without hormone. Medias were collected after 24 hours and compared the amount of thyroglobulin secreted. And also pulse-labeling were performed with S^35 cysteine/methionine(1-2uCi/well) for 30, 60, 90min at the same conditions.There was no significant change in the amount of the secreted thyroglobulin by MMI, and there was no significant change in the pulse-labeled interacellular thyroglobulin by MMI. And also there was no significant change in the secretion of TSH-stimulated thyroglobulin by MMI. So we conclude that MMI has no effect on the thyroglobulin synthesis in cultured porcine thyroid cells and also MMI has no effect on the TSH-stimulated thyroglobulin synthesis in cultured porcine thyroid cell.
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Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor mRNA by In Situ Hybridization in Normal and Abnormal Thyroid Tissue.
Hyun Sik Son, Kun Ho Yoon, Bong Yun Cha, Jong Min Lee, Kwang Woo Lee, Moo Il Kang, Ho Young Son, Sung Koo Kang, Se Jeong Oh, Jin Han Kang, An Hee Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):337-343.   Published online November 6, 2019
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  • 20 Download
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Growth factors are polypeptide molecules that regulate cell growth and function by binding with high affinity to specific receptor molecules in the plasma membrane and stimulating receptor mediated action of intracellular signal transduction pathway.Epidermal growth factor(EGF) and their receptors(EGFR) regulate normal cellular growth, proliferation, and differentiation of various cells in vivo and in tissue cultures. And also may contribute directly to oncogenesis.Overexpression of EGFR and autocrine stimulation of growth involving this receptor system has been identified in several types of human neoplasia. There is evidence that the EGF and receptor system is involved in the regulation of follicular cell growth in the thyroid gland especially with immunohistochemical technic. But there was a challenge about the validity of previously performed immunohistochemical studies.In the study we investigated the relationship between EGFR mRNA expression and tumorigenesis by rapid in situ hybridization method. Formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections of 10 normal, 17 nodular hyperplasia, 6 follicular adenoma, and 15 papillary cancer were examined. The results were as follows:1) EGFR mRNA positivity were 20%(2/10) in normal thyroid, 70%(12/17) in nodular hyperplasia, and 100% in follicular adenoma and papillary cancer.2) There was a significantly increased EGFR mRNA expression in papillary cancer compare to normal and nodular hyperplasia(p<0.05). But no difference was found with papillary cancer and follicular adenoma.3) There was a significantly increased EGFR mRNA expression in follicular adenoma compare to normal (p<0.05). But no difference was found with follicular adenoma and nodular hyperplasia. These results suggest that an overexpression of EGFR mRNA may play an important role in the tumorigenesis of thyroid tissue.
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Changes of Bone Turnover Markers after Treatment with Growth Hormone Therapy in Children with Growth Retardation.
In Myung Yang, Jeong Taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Young Seol Kim, Young Kil Choi, Ki Oak han, Duk Yoon Kim, Hyung In Yang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):344-349.   Published online November 6, 2019
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  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The effects of growth hormone(GH) deficiency and recombinant human GH replacement(0.5IU/kg per week) on bone mineral metabolism in 21GH-deficiency children were studied. All children had significantly reduction of bone density(Z score;-1.4+-0.71). After 1 month of therapy, the levels of serum insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1), osteocalcin(OC) and carboxyterminal propeptede of type 1 procollagen(PICP) were significantly elevated. But IGFBP-3 were not shown to change significantly. The changes in serum levels of PICP during the first month of recombinant human GH treatment were positively related to growth velocity, whereas the changes in IGF-1 and OC during the first month of therapy were not. We conclude that the recombinant human GH treatment caused significant modifications of mineral metablism and that the measurement of the changes of biochemical markers of bone metablism espacially PICP may be a useful tool in prediction improved growth velocity during long term GH replacement therpy.
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Signal Transduction Related Oncogenes in Human Adrenal Cortical Tumor; Gsα Giα, CREB.
Eun Jig Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Sung Kil Lim, eun Kyung Jung, Hyung Chun Park, Woo Hee Jung, Dong Whan Shin, Hyun Suk Lee, Yung Dae Yoon
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):350-357.   Published online November 6, 2019
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Functioning adrenal cortical tumors are originated form a distinct zone(zonna glomerulosa, zonna fasciculata or zonna reticularis) or the transitonal zone of adrenal gland. Each zone of the gland is regulated by their specific hormons or cytokines, and their signal transduction systems are different. The oncogenes of many endocrine tumors were mutated proteins involved in signal transduction, however gip is the only reported oncogene in adrenal cortical tumors. Therefore we decided to reevaluate whether gsp might be detected as an oncogene in several different functioning adrenal tumors, and we also tested whether CREB protein is a tentative oncogene or not. In our study, gsp was not detected in 13 patients, however gip was not also detected unexpectedly. There were no mutations in the phosporylation site of CREB("P" box) in adrenal cushing syndrome. We concluded that gip was not a oncogene detected frequently in adrenal cortical tumor, and CREB protein was not considered as a tentative oncogen, because there might be no amplification of the signals due to its extreme distal component of PKA or PKC system.
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A Clinical Study of 11 Cases of Adrenal Ineidentaloma.
Jae Myung Yoo, Sang Jin Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Yong Hyun Kim, Eun Jong Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):358-365.   Published online November 6, 2019
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With the wide application of ultrasonography and CT scanning, the incidental finding of a radiologic abnormality, apparently adrenal origin, has presented a problem for clinical management. The prevalence of these clinically silent tumors has been reported as 0.6 to 1.3% of upper abdominal CT scans performed for other reasons.Once identified, an adrenal lesion must characterized as to its functional status and malignant potential. A thorough approach that initially excludes biochemical hypersecretion, then considers characteristics of anatomy and the functional nature of an adrenal mass, will allow a rational and cost-effective evaluation and management of these lesions.We present out experience of eleven adrenal incidentalomas with a review of literatures.
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Insulin Resistance, Body Fat Distribution, and Sex Hormones in Healthy Men and Premenopausal Women.
Seong Yeon Kim, Kyung Soo Park, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee, Chan Soo Shin, Chang Soon Koh, Tae Geun Oh, Woon Bae Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):366-374.   Published online November 6, 2019
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  • 22 Download
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It is well known that obesity central obesity is associated with insulin resistance and some studies reported that sex hormones were associated with insulin resistance. Recently, low levels of sex-hormone binding globulin(SHBG), an indirect index of androgenicity, have been observed to predict the development of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus(NIDDM) in women and SHBG has been proposed as a marker for insulin resistance. In contrast to findings in women, decreased SHBG did not predict the occurrence of NIDDM in men, so it is suggested that sex hormones may have a different role for insulin resistance between men and women. To investigate the difference of the associations among the body fat distribution, sex hormone and insulin sensitivity index in men and women, we measured body-mass index(BMI) and waist to hip circumference ratio(WHR) and concentrations serum SHBG, total testosterone, free testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate(DHEA-S) concentrations in 29 healthy adults(men:19, women:10) who showed normal glucose tolerance. Insulin sensitivity index(M/I) was measured by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. There were no differences in age, BMI, fasting plasma glucose, insulin and free fatty acid levels between men and women. WHR of men is higher than that of women(0.82+-0.01 vs. 0.73+-0.01, p=0.002). Insulin sensitivity index(M/I) is similar in men and women(7.80+-0.71 mg/kg/min/uU/ml X 100 vs. 9.74+-0.89 mg/kg/min/uU/ml X 100, p=0.196).In Pearson's correlation, M/I was significantly correlated with BMI(r=-0.69, p<0.01) and WHR(r=-0.68, p<0.01) in men and DHEA-S(r=-0.68, p<0.05) and SHBG(r=0.61, p=0.056) concentrations in women.In multiple regression analysis, M/I had the most significant association with BMI(R^2=0.484, beta=-0.696, p<0.001) in men and DHEA-S(R^2=0.471, beta=-0.686, p<0.05) concentration in women.Conclusively, we found that sex hormones were significantly associated with insulin resistance and the effects of sex hormones on insulin resistance may be different in men and women.
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Case Reports
A Case of Thyroid Anaplastic Cancer with Intestinal Metastasis.
Seong Yeon Kim, Kyung Soo Park, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee, Chang Soon Koh, Jae Seok Jeon, Min Seon Kim, Won Bae Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):375-379.   Published online November 6, 2019
  • 1,183 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Thyroid anaplastic cancer is one of the most malignant neoplasms encountered in human. These tumors usually present as rapidly enlarging neck mass in old patients who may or may not have had a previously recognized goiter. The distant metastases of anaplastic cancer eventually occur in about 50% patients, mostly in the lung and bone and are an important prognostic factor, substantially reducing survival time.A 66-year old man visited out hospital because of rapidly growing anterior neck mass and hoarseness. He was diagnosed as thyroid anaplastic cancer with lymph node and lung metastasis and received combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy. On the 8th hospital day, severe abdominal pain developed and exploratory laparotomy was conducted. During operation, two intestinal mass were discovered, one of which was perforated. The microscopic examinations showed that undifferentiated malignant cells were infiltrated in the wall of small bowel. We report this case because we first experienced thyroid anaplastic cancer with intestinal metastasis.
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Two Cases of Tubereuloeis of the Thyroid Gland with Euthyroidism.
Jae Bok Lee, Seok Man Son, Kyoung Seog Lee, Yeong Tae Jeong, In Joo Kim, Yong Ki Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):380-384.   Published online November 6, 2019
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  • 23 Download
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Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland is extremely rare with few cases reported in recent years. Tuberculosis may involve the thyroid gland in two main forms. The more common of theses is miliary spread to the thyroid as part of generalized dissemination and less commonly focal or caseous tuberculosis of the thyroid may occur, presenting as a nodule, as a thyroiditis, as a abscess, or as carcinoma like.We experienced two cases of tuberculosis of the thyroid gland presenting with palpable thyroid nodule in 26 year-old female and 65 year-old female patients. They have been clinically and biochemically euthyroid and their thyroid scans demonstrated a cold nodule at right thyroid gland. We found no evidence of tuberculosis elsewhere. The goiter was removed surgically and confirmed to be tuberculosis. They were medicated antituberculous agents after operation and followed up regulary out patient department.We report the cases of two patients with tuberculosis involving thyroid with reviews of literature.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism