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15 "Calcium"
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Original Article
Diabetes, obesity and metabolism
Coronary Artery Calcium Score as a Sensitive Indicator of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Long-Term Cohort Study
Dae-Jeong Koo, Mi Yeon Lee, Sun Joon Moon, Hyemi Kwon, Sang Min Lee, Se Eun Park, Cheol-Young Park, Won-Young Lee, Ki Won Oh, Sung Rae Cho, Young-Hoon Jeong, Eun-Jung Rhee
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(5):568-577.   Published online October 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1770
  • 2,260 View
  • 127 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) has become an important tool for evaluating cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study evaluated the significance of CACS for future CVD through more than 10 years of follow-up in asymptomatic Korean populations with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) known to have a relatively low CACS burden.
Methods
We enrolled 981 asymptomatic T2DM patients without CVD at baseline who underwent CACS evaluation using multidetector computed tomography between January 2008 and December 2014. They were grouped into five predefined CACS categories based on Agatston scores and followed up by August 2020. The primary endpoint was incident CVD events, including coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial disease.
Results
The relative risk of CVD was significantly higher in patients with CACS ≥10, and the significance persisted after adjustment for known confounders. A higher CACS category indicated a higher incidence of future CVD: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 4.09 (1.79 to 9.36), 12.00 (5.61 to 25.69), and 38.79 (16.43 to 91.59) for 10≤ CACS <100, 100≤ CACS <400, and CACS ≥400, respectively. During the 12-year follow-up period, the difference in event-free survival more than doubled as the category increased. Patients with CACS below 10 had very low CVD incidence throughout the follow-up. The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed better area under curve when the CACS cutoff was 10 than 100.
Conclusion
CACS can be a sensitive marker of CVD risk. Specifically, CACS above 10 is an indicator of CVD high-risk requiring more intensive medical treatment in Koreans with T2DM.
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Review Articles
Calcium & bone metabolism
Cardiovascular Impact of Calcium and Vitamin D Supplements: A Narrative Review
Fatima Zarzour, Ahmad Didi, Mohammed Almohaya, David Kendler
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(1):56-68.   Published online February 16, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1644
  • 4,937 View
  • 310 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Calcium and vitamin D play an important role in mineral homeostasis and the maintenance of skeletal health. Calcium and vitamin D supplements have been widely used for fracture prevention in elderly populations. Many trials have studied the effectiveness and cardiovascular safety of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, with disparate results. In this review, we summarize the most important trials and systematic reviews. There is significant heterogeneity in clinical trial design, differences in the nature of trial outcomes (self-reported vs. verified), prior calcium intake, and trial size. Inconsistent results have been reported concerning the effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. Most current guidelines recommend calcium intake of up to 1,200 mg daily, preferably from the diet, without concern for cardiovascular risk. Recommendations regarding vitamin D supplementation vary widely. There is compelling evidence from well-conducted randomized trials that modest vitamin D supplementation is safe but does not confer cardiovascular benefit or cardiovascular harm.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Evaluating adherence, tolerability and safety of oral calcium citrate in elderly osteopenic subjects: a real-life non-interventional, prospective, multicenter study
    Mariangela Rondanelli, Salvatore Minisola, Marco Barale, Daniele Barbaro, Francesca Mansueto, Santina Battaglia, Gloria Bonaccorsi, Santina Caliri, Alessandro Cavioni, Luciano Colangelo, Sabrina Corbetta, Federica Coretti, Giorgia Dito, Valentina Gavioli,
    Aging Clinical and Experimental Research.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between Daily Dietary Calcium Intake and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in Postmenopausal Korean Women
    Jae Kyung Lee, Thi Minh Chau Tran, Euna Choi, Jinkyung Baek, Hae-Rim Kim, Heeyon Kim, Bo Hyon Yun, Seok Kyo Seo
    Nutrients.2024; 16(7): 1043.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Denosumab on Bone Density in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: A Comparison with and without Calcium Supplementation in Patients on Standard Diets in Korea
    Chaiho Jeong, Jinyoung Kim, Jeongmin Lee, Yejee Lim, Dong-Jun Lim, Ki-Hyun Baek, Jeonghoon Ha
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(21): 6904.     CrossRef
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Bone Metabolism
Normocalcemic Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Need for a Standardized Clinical Approach
Guido Zavatta, Bart L. Clarke
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(3):525-535.   Published online June 1, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1061
  • 7,186 View
  • 419 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Since normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (NHPT) was first defined at the Third International Workshop on the Management of Asymptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism in 2008, many papers have been published describing its prevalence and possible complications. Guidelines for the management of this condition are still lacking, and making the diagnosis requires fulfillment of strict criteria. Recent studies have shown that intermittent oscillations of serum calcium just below and slightly above the normal limits are very frequent, therefore challenging the assumption that serum calcium must be consistently normal to make the diagnosis. There is debate if these variations in serum calcium outside the normal range should be included under the rubric of NHPT or, rather, a milder form of classical primary hyperparathyroidism. Innovative approaches to define NHPT have been proposed that still need to be validated in prospective studies. Non-classical complications, especially cardiovascular complications, have been associated with NHPT, indicating that hyperparathyroidism may be a cardiovascular risk factor. New associations between parathyroid hormone (PTH) and several other comorbidities have also been reported from observational studies, suggesting that excessive PTH secretion might cause tissue dysfunction independent of serum calcium. Heterogeneous studies using different definitions of NHPT, however, make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions regarding the role of PTH excess when complications other than osteoporosis or kidney stones are described. This review will focus on clinical aspects and suggest an approach to NHPT.

Citations

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    Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America.2024; 57(1): 111.     CrossRef
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    Ewout Verly, Bruno Lapauw, Charlotte Verroken
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    Osteoporosis International.2023; 34(5): 999.     CrossRef
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  • Incidental Normocalcemic Primary Hyperparathyroidism Presenting With Symptomatic Hypophosphatemia: A Case Report
    Omar Tabbikha, Joanne Chamy, Michael El Khoury
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Long-term effects of hypercalcemia in kidney transplant recipients with persistent hyperparathyroidism
    Juan Carlos Ramirez-Sandoval, Lluvia Marino, Gabriel Cojuc-Konigsberg, Estefania Reul-Linares, Nathalie Desire Pichardo-Cabrera, Cristino Cruz, Elisa Naomi Hernández-Paredes, Nathan Berman-Parks, Vanessa Vidal-Ruíz, Jonathan Mauricio Estrada-Linares, Alfr
    Journal of Nephrology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluating Patients for Secondary Causes of Osteoporosis
    E. Michael Lewiecki
    Current Osteoporosis Reports.2022; 20(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Preoperative Thoracic Muscle Mass Predicts Bone Density Change After Parathyroidectomy in Primary Hyperparathyroidism
    Seung Won Burm, Namki Hong, Seunghyun Lee, Gi Jeong Kim, Sang Hyun Hwang, Jongju Jeong, Yumie Rhee
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2022; 107(6): e2474.     CrossRef
  • Applications of Metabolomics in Calcium Metabolism Disorders in Humans
    Beata Podgórska, Marta Wielogórska-Partyka, Joanna Godzień, Julia Siemińska, Michał Ciborowski, Małgorzata Szelachowska, Adam Krętowski, Katarzyna Siewko
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2022; 23(18): 10407.     CrossRef
  • Serum Calcium/Phosphorus Ratio in Biochemical Screening of Primary Hyperparathyroidism
    Nagihan Bestepe, Fatma Neslihan Cuhaci, Burcak Polat, Berna Evranos Ogmen, Didem Ozdemir, Reyhan Ersoy, Bekir Cakir
    Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira.2022; 68(12): 1668.     CrossRef
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Diabetes
Recent Updates on Vascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Chan-Hee Jung, Ji-Oh Mok
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(2):260-271.   Published online June 24, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.35.2.260
  • 8,063 View
  • 286 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
It is well known that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) complications. Previously, the concept that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a “coronary artery disease (CAD) risk equivalent” was widely accepted, implying that all DM patients should receive intensive management. However, considerable evidence exist for wide heterogeneity in the risk of CV events among T2DM patients and the concept of a “CAD risk equivalent” has changed. Recent guidelines recommend further CV risk stratification in T2DM patients, with treatment tailored to the risk level. Although imaging modalities for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) have been used to improve risk prediction, there is currently no evidence that imaging-oriented therapy improves clinical outcomes. Therefore, controversy remains whether we should screen for CVD in asymptomatic T2DM. The coexistence of T2DM and heart failure (HF) is common. Based on recent CV outcome trials, sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists are recommended who have established ASCVD, indicators of high risk, or HF because of their demonstrated benefits for CVD. These circumstances have led to an increasing emphasis on ASCVD and HF in T2DM patients. In this review, we examine the literature published within the last 5 years on the risk assessment of CVD in asymptomatic T2DM patients. In particular, we review recent guidelines regarding screening for CVD and research focusing on the role of coronary artery calcium, coronary computed tomography angiography, and carotid intima-media thickness in asymptomatic T2DM patients.

Citations

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  • Coronary Artery Calcium Score as a Sensitive Indicator of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Long-Term Cohort Study
    Dae-Jeong Koo, Mi Yeon Lee, Sun Joon Moon, Hyemi Kwon, Sang Min Lee, Se Eun Park, Cheol-Young Park, Won-Young Lee, Ki Won Oh, Sung Rae Cho, Young-Hoon Jeong, Eun-Jung Rhee
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Calcium and Cardiovascular Disease
Ian R. Reid, Sarah M. Birstow, Mark J. Bolland
Endocrinol Metab. 2017;32(3):339-349.   Published online September 18, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2017.32.3.339
  • 11,468 View
  • 145 Download
  • 70 Web of Science
  • 70 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Circulating calcium is a risk factor for vascular disease, a conclusion arising from prospective studies involving hundreds of thousands of participants and extending over periods of up to 30 years. These associations may be partially mediated by other cardiovascular risk factors such as circulating lipid levels, blood pressure, and body mass index, but there appears to be a residual independent effect of serum calcium. Polymorphisms of the calcium-sensing receptor associated with small elevations of serum calcium are also associated with cardiovascular disease, suggesting that calcium plays a causative role. Trials of calcium supplements in patients on dialysis and those with less severe renal failure demonstrate increased mortality and/or acceleration of vascular disease, and meta-analyses of trials in those without overt renal disease suggest a similar adverse effect. Interpretation of the latter trials is complicated by a significant interaction between baseline use of calcium supplements and the effect of randomisation to calcium in the largest trial. Restriction of analysis to those who are calcium-naive demonstrates a consistent adverse effect. Observational studies of dietary calcium do not demonstrate a consistent adverse effect on cardiovascular health, though very high or very low intakes may be deleterious. Thus, obtaining calcium from the diet rather than supplements is to be encouraged.

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    Ian R Reid
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    Mehmet Üstün, Korhan Tuncer
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    Dingfeng Fang, Haibo Chen
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    Yuliya A. Kaminarskaya
    Clinical nutrition and metabolism.2022; 3(3): 167.     CrossRef
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    Sofia Beghi, Malgorzata Furmanik, Armand Jaminon, Rogier Veltrop, Nikolas Rapp, Kanin Wichapong, Elham Bidar, Annamaria Buschini, Leon J. Schurgers
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Close layer
Original Articles
Comparison between Atorvastatin and Rosuvastatin in Renal Function Decline among Patients with Diabetes
Eugene Han, Gyuri Kim, Ji-Yeon Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Beom Seok Kim, Byung-Wan Lee, Bong-Soo Cha, Eun Seok Kang
Endocrinol Metab. 2017;32(2):274-280.   Published online June 23, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2017.32.2.274
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  • 184 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Although the beneficial effects of statin treatment in dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis have been well studied, there is limited information regarding the renal effects of statins in diabetic nephropathy. We aimed to investigate whether, and which, statins affected renal function in Asian patients with diabetes.

Methods

We enrolled 484 patients with diabetes who received statin treatment for more than 12 months. We included patients treated with moderate-intensity dose statin treatment (atorvastatin 10 to 20 mg/day or rosuvastatin 5 to 10 mg/day). The primary outcome was a change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during the 12-month statin treatment, and rapid renal decline was defined as a >3% reduction in eGFR in a 1-year period.

Results

In both statin treatment groups, patients showed improved serum lipid levels and significantly reduced eGFRs (from 80.3 to 78.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 for atorvastatin [P=0.012], from 79.1 to 76.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 for rosuvastatin [P=0.001]). A more rapid eGFR decline was observed in the rosuvastatin group than in the atorvastatin group (48.7% vs. 38.6%, P=0.029). Multiple logistic regression analyses demonstrated more rapid renal function loss in the rosuvastatin group than in the atorvastatin group after adjustment for other confounding factors (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 2.42).

Conclusion

These results suggest that a moderate-intensity dose of atorvastatin has fewer detrimental effects on renal function than that of rosuvastatin.

Citations

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Close layer
Clinical Study
Waist Circumference as a Marker of Obesity Is More Predictive of Coronary Artery Calcification than Body Mass Index in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study
Jongsin Park, Eun Seo Lee, Da Young Lee, Jihyun Kim, Se Eun Park, Cheol-Young Park, Won-Young Lee, Ki-Won Oh, Sung-Woo Park, Eun-Jung Rhee
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):559-566.   Published online December 20, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.559
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  • 33 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We aimed to assess the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to groups subdivided by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in apparently healthy Korean adults.

Methods

Thirty-three thousand four hundred and thirty-two participants (mean age, 42 years) in a health screening program were divided into three groups according to BMI: <23 kg/m2 (normal), 23 to 25 kg/m2 (overweight), and >25 kg/m2 (obese). In addition, the participants were divided into two groups according to WC. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured with multi-detector computed tomography in all participants. Presence of CAC was defined as CACS >0.

Results

When logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of CAC as the dependent variable, the risk for CAC increased as BMI increased after adjusting for confounding variables (1.102 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000 to 1.216]; 1.284 [95% CI, 1.169 to 1.410]; in the overweight and obese groups vs. the normal weight group). When the participants were divided into six groups according to BMI and WC, the subjects with BMI and WC in the obese range showed the highest risk for CAC (1.321 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]) and those with BMI in the overweight range and WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC (1.235 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]).

Conclusion

Participants with obesity defined by both BMI and WC showed the highest risk for CAC. Those with BMIs in the overweight range but with WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC, suggesting that WC as a marker of obesity is more predictive of CAC than BMI.

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Review Articles
Adrenal gland
Hypoparathyroidism: Replacement Therapy with Parathyroid Hormone
Lars Rejnmark, Line Underbjerg, Tanja Sikjaer
Endocrinol Metab. 2015;30(4):436-442.   Published online December 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2015.30.4.436
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is characterized by low serum calcium levels caused by an insufficient secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Despite normalization of serum calcium levels by treatment with activated vitamin D analogues and calcium supplementation, patients are suffering from impaired quality of life (QoL) and are at increased risk of a number of comorbidities. Thus, despite normalization of calcium levels in response to conventional therapy, this should only be considered as an apparent normalization, as patients are suffering from a number of complications and calcium-phosphate homeostasis is not normalized in a physiological manner. In a number of recent studies, replacement therapy with recombinant human PTH (rhPTH(1-84)) as well as therapy with the N-terminal PTH fragment (rhPTH(1-34)) have been investigated. Both drugs have been shown to normalize serum calcium while reducing needs for activated vitamin D and calcium supplements. However, once a day injections cause large fluctuations in serum calcium. Twice a day injections diminish fluctuations, but don't restore the normal physiology of calcium homeostasis. Recent studies using pump-delivery have shown promising results on maintaining normocalcemia with minimal fluctuations in calcium levels. Further studies are needed to determine whether this may improve QoL and lower risk of complications. Such data are needed before replacement with the missing hormone can be recommended as standard therapy.

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Close layer
Bone Metabolism
The Risks and Benefits of Calcium Supplementation
Chan Soo Shin, Kyoung Min Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2015;30(1):27-34.   Published online March 27, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2015.30.1.27
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events has recently become a topic of debate due to the publication of two epidemiological studies and one meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The reports indicate that there is a significant increase in adverse cardiovascular events following supplementation with calcium; however, a number of experts have raised several issues with these reports such as inconsistencies in attempts to reproduce the findings in other populations and questions concerning the validity of the data due to low compliance, biases in case ascertainment, and/or a lack of adjustment. Additionally, the Auckland Calcium Study, the Women's Health Initiative, and many other studies included in the meta-analysis obtained data from calcium-replete subjects and it is not clear whether the same risk profile would be observed in populations with low calcium intakes. Dietary calcium intake varies widely throughout the world and it is especially low in East Asia, although the risk of cardiovascular events is less prominent in this region. Therefore, clarification is necessary regarding the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events following calcium supplementation and whether this relationship can be generalized to populations with low calcium intakes. Additionally, the skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are greater in subjects with low calcium intakes and, therefore, the risk-benefit ratio of calcium supplementation is likely to differ based on the dietary calcium intake and risks of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases of various populations. Further studies investigating the risk-benefit profiles of calcium supplementation in various populations are required to develop population-specific guidelines for individuals of different genders, ages, ethnicities, and risk profiles around the world.

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Close layer
Obesity and Metabolism
Sweet Taste-Sensing Receptors Expressed in Pancreatic β-Cells: Sweet Molecules Act as Biased Agonists
Itaru Kojima, Yuko Nakagawa, Yoshiaki Ohtsu, Anya Medina, Masahiro Nagasawa
Endocrinol Metab. 2014;29(1):12-19.   Published online March 14, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2014.29.1.12
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The sweet taste receptors present in the taste buds are heterodimers comprised of T1R2 and T1R3. This receptor is also expressed in pancreatic β-cells. When the expression of receptor subunits is determined in β-cells by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA expression level of T1R2 is extremely low compared to that of T1R3. In fact, the expression of T1R2 is undetectable at the protein level. Furthermore, knockdown of T1R2 does not affect the effect of sweet molecules, whereas knockdown of T1R3 markedly attenuates the effect of sweet molecules. Consequently, a homodimer of T1R3 functions as a receptor sensing sweet molecules in β-cells, which we designate as sweet taste-sensing receptors (STSRs). Various sweet molecules activate STSR in β-cells and augment insulin secretion. With regard to intracellular signals, sweet molecules act on STSRs and increase cytoplasmic Ca2+ and/or cyclic AMP (cAMP). Specifically, when an STSR is stimulated by one of four different sweet molecules (sucralose, acesulfame potassium, sodium saccharin, or glycyrrhizin), distinct signaling pathways are activated. Patterns of changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ and/or cAMP induced by these sweet molecules are all different from each other. Hence, sweet molecules activate STSRs by acting as biased agonists.

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Close layer
Original Article
Obesity and Metabolism
The Relationship of Body Composition and Coronary Artery Calcification in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults
Jung-Hee Yu, Seo Hyoung Yim, Su Hyeon Yu, Ji Yong Lee, Jong Dae Kim, Mi Hae Seo, Won Seon Jeon, Se-Eun Park, Cheol-Young Park, Won-Young Lee, Ki-Won Oh, Sung-Woo Park, Eun-Jung Rhee
Endocrinol Metab. 2013;28(1):33-40.   Published online March 25, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2013.28.1.33
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

We investigated the association of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) with body composition and insulin resistance in apparently healthy Korean adults.

Methods

Nine hundred forty-five participants (mean age, 48.9 years; 628 men) in a medical check-up program were selected for analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The CACS was assessed by multidetector computed tomography.

Results

One hundred forty-six subjects (15.4%) showed coronary artery calcification and 148 subjects (15.7%) had metabolic syndrome. CACS showed a significant positive correlation with age, fasting glucose level, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, HOMA-IR, and waist-hip ratio (WHR) assessed by BIA. CACS had a negative correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Subjects with high CACS showed significantly higher mean WHRs and lower mean values for lean body mass compared with subjects without coronary artery calcification. In logistic regression analyses with coronary artery calcification as the dependent variable, the highest quartile of WHR showed a 3.125-fold increased odds ratio for coronary artery calcification compared with the lowest quartile after adjustment for confounding variables. When receiver operating characteristics analyses were performed with coronary artery calcification as the result variable, WHR showed the largest area under the curve (AUC) value among other variables except for age and WC in women (AUC=0.696 for WHR, 0.790 for age, and 0.719 for WC in women).

Conclusion

In our study population of apparently healthy Korean adults, WHR was the most significant predictor for coronary artery calcification among other confounding factors, suggesting that it may have implication as a marker for early atherosclerosis.

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    Eun-Jung Rhee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2018; 42(1): 19.     CrossRef
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    Teresa Padro, Natàlia Muñoz-García, Gemma Vilahur, Patricia Chagas, Alba Deyà, Rosa Maria Antonijoan, Lina Badimon
    Nutrients.2018; 10(9): 1237.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol on Coronary Artery Calcification Progression According to High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels
    Da Young Lee, Ji Hyun Kim, Se Eun Park, Cheol-young Park, Ki-won Oh, Sung-woo Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-young Lee
    Archives of Medical Research.2017; 48(3): 284.     CrossRef
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    Ho-Jung Jung, Hwanseok Jung, Taeyoung Lee, Jongho Kim, Jongsin Park, Hacsoo Kim, Junghwan Cho, Won-Young Lee, Sung-Woo Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Hyung-Geun Oh
    Atherosclerosis.2017; 256: 89.     CrossRef
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    H.-S. Kim, H. Kim, H. Lee, B. Park, S. Park, S.-H. Lee, J. H. Cho, H. Song, J. H. Kim, K.-H. Yoon, I. Y. Choi
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.2016; 41(1): 70.     CrossRef
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    Eun-Jung Rhee, Ji Hyun Kim, Hye-Jeong Park, Se Eun Park, Hyung-Geun Oh, Cheol-Young Park, Won-Young Lee, Ki-Won Oh, Sung-Woo Park
    Atherosclerosis.2016; 245: 132.     CrossRef
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    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2016; 31(4): 559.     CrossRef
  • Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study
    Hyung-Geun Oh, Shriram Nallamshetty, Eun-Jung Rhee
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    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2015; 30(4): 551.     CrossRef
  • Higher association of coronary artery calcification with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than with abdominal obesity in middle-aged Korean men: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study
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    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2015; 30(1): 73.     CrossRef
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    Atherosclerosis.2015; 240(1): 242.     CrossRef
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  • Brief Review of Articles in 'Endocrinology and Metabolism' in 2013
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    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2014; 29(3): 251.     CrossRef
  • Letter: The Relationship of Body Composition and Coronary Artery Calcification in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults (Endocrinol Metab 2013;28:33-40, Jung-Hee Yu et al.)
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  • Metabolic Health Is More Closely Associated with Coronary Artery Calcification than Obesity
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    PLoS ONE.2013; 8(9): e74564.     CrossRef
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Case Reports
A Case of Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia Coexisting with Low Bone Mass.
Sung Wan Chun, Se Hwa Kim, Jong Yul Jung, Won Na Suh, Ji Ae Moon, Jong In Yook, Yoon Sok Chung, Yumie Rhee, Eun Jig Lee, Sung Kil Lim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2006;21(6):583-588.   Published online December 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2006.21.6.583
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Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutation of the calcium sensing receptor gene, and this is characterized by mild, persistently elevated levels of serum calcium without symptoms or complications. We present a case of clinically diagnosed familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia with unexpected low bone mass. A 19-year-old man presented with incidentally discovered hypercalcemia. He showed normal growth and sexual maturation. Biochemical studies showed hypercalcemia, increased parathyroid hormone, hypocalciuria, a decreased urinary calcium-creatinine ratio and decreased serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D. The other hormonal studies were normal. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry showed low bone mineral density, and the Sestamibi scan showed no abnormality in the parathyroid glands. Iliac bone biopsy showed a general decrease in bone density and increased porosity of the cortical bone. Normal mineralization was also shown, but in part, osteoid deposition was also found. Direct sequencing of the patient's calcium sensing receptor gene showed a point mutation at exon7, Q926R.
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Neonatal Tetany Caused by Hyperparathyroidism Undetected During Pregnancy.
Wan Sub Shim, Hee Baek Park, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2002;17(2):257-262.   Published online April 1, 2002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Primary hyperparathyroidism is rarely encountered during pregnancy but its prompt diagnosis and treatment if encountered during pregnancy is important because it can carry considerable morbidity not only for the mother but also for the fetus. It tends to remain undiagnosed because 50~80% of the patients are asymptomatic. Even if they do demonstrate symptoms, those are often nonspecific. The other reason for non-diagnosis is masking of hypercalcemia due to the change of calcium homeostasis during pregnancy. Neonatal tetany can be a clue for the presence and diagnosis maternal hyperparathyroidism. The asymptomatic patient who is diagnosed postpartum when her newborn is symptomatic should undergo elective parathyroidectomy to avoid future complication. We experienced a woman with undiagnosed primary hyperparathyroidism during pregnancy whose two children suffered neonatal tetany. We report this case along with a review of literature on primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy and calcium homeostasis during pregnancy.
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A Case of Islets Cell Hyperplasia Diagnosed by Selective Arterial Calcium Stimulation Test.
Jin Hoon Youn, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Yeong Shil Joo, Byoung Joon Kim, Sung Hoon Kim, Kye Hyoung Kwon, Myung Ah Jung, Jin Soo Yang, In Su Jung, Chung Hyeon Kim, Sung Bum Cho, Tae Seok Lee, Eun Kyung Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(4-5):514-519.   Published online October 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We report a 40-year-old female patient with clinical findings suggestive of insulinoma. Although imaging studies did not reveal any tumors in the pancreas, a selective arterial calcium stimulation test(SACI), procedurally simpler and more effective than transhepatic pancreatic venous sampling, was performed. And then near total pancreatectomy was carried out because the possibility of small insulinoma could not be completely excluded. Grossly, the surgically removed pancreas did not reveal any tumors. However, the pancreas exhibited islets cell hyperplasia. To our knowledge, this is the first reported authentic case in a Korean adult of islet-cell hyperplasia diagnosed by selective arterial calcium stimulation test.
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Original Article
Association Between Peak Bone Mass and Genetic Polymorphisms of the Vitamin D Receptor, Estrogen Receptor, and Type I Collagen 1 Genes in Healthy Young Korean Women.
Hong Kyu Kim, Sang Wook Kim, Eun Sook Kim, Ghi Su Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(1):97-114.   Published online February 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Genetic suggest that strongest effect is observed in the premenopausal peak bone mass, which become less with age. However, the evaluation of candidate genes polymorphisms has been most frequently done in postmenopausal women and the results have been controversial. Therefore, we studied the possible association of the peak bone mass and candidate for osteoporosis genes polymorphism in premenopausal women. METHODS: The associations between BMD and polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (3'-end region by BsmI restriction enzyme and start codon by FokI restriction enzyme), estrogen receptor (by PvuII and XbaI restriction enzyme), and type I collagen 1 (Sp1 binding site by MscI and BalI restriction enzyme) genes were examined in 100 healthy young Korean women who had a peak bone mass (age 20-35 years). Bone mineral densities were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Dietary calcium intake was also measured using a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The frequencies of the B allele of the vitamin D receptor gene BsmI polymorphism and the X allele in the estrogen receptor gene, XbaI polymorphisms were lower in Koreans than those in Caucasians. The allelic frequencies of the vitamin vitamin D receptor gene FokI polymorphism and the estrogen receptor gene PvuII polymorphism were similar to those of Caucasians. No significant association was found between BMD and the vitamin D receptor genotype according to BsmI or FokI polymorphisms. There was also no significant relation between the PvuII or XbaI polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor gene and BMD. The associations between BMD and cross-genotypes combining the vitamin D receptor gene (BsmI and FokI) and estrogen receptor gene (PvuII and XbaI) polymorphisms were also analyzed. Among the subjects who lacked the Bf haplotype of the vitamin D receptor gene, the BMD of the femoral neck area was significantly higher in subjects lacking Px haplotypes of the estrogen receptor gene than in those having Px haplotype (p < 0.05). When dietary calcium intake was taken into consideration, there were significant differences in BMD according to the cross-genotype in the group having a low calcium intake (< 500 mg/day). The subjects that lacked the Bf and Px haplotypes had a significantly higher BMD in the femoral neck (p < 0.01), Ward's triangle (p < 0.05), and in the trochanteric area (p < 0.05) than those who lacked Bf but a Px haplotype. We did not find a polymorphism in the Sp1 binding site of the type I collagen 1 gene in our subjects. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that a complex interaction of vitamin D and the estrogen receptor gene with the dietary calcium intake, rather than a polymorphism of a single gene, may influence peak bone mass in healthy young Korean women.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism