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Review Article
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Effects of Intermittent Fasting on the Circulating Levels and Circadian Rhythms of Hormones
Bo Hye Kim, Yena Joo, Min-Seon Kim, Han Kyoung Choe, Qingchun Tong, Obin Kwon
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(4):745-756.   Published online August 27, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.405
  • 29,314 View
  • 1,081 Download
  • 35 Web of Science
  • 35 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Intermittent fasting has become an increasingly popular strategy in losing weight and associated reduction in obesity-related medical complications. Overwhelming studies support metabolic improvements from intermittent fasting in blood glucose levels, cardiac and brain function, and other health benefits, in addition to weight loss. However, concerns have also been raised on side effects including muscle loss, ketosis, and electrolyte imbalance. Of particular concern, the effect of intermittent fasting on hormonal circadian rhythms has received little attention. Given the known importance of circadian hormonal changes to normal physiology, potential detrimental effects by dysregulation of hormonal changes deserve careful discussions. In this review, we describe the changes in circadian rhythms of hormones caused by intermittent fasting. We covered major hormones commonly pathophysiologically involved in clinical endocrinology, including insulin, thyroid hormones, and glucocorticoids. Given that intermittent fasting could alter both the level and frequency of hormone secretion, decisions on practicing intermittent fasting should take more considerations on potential detrimental consequences versus beneficial effects pertaining to individual health conditions.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Meagan M. Guilfoyle
    American Journal of Human Biology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Julia Rius-Bonet, Salvador Macip, Daniel Closa, Marta Massip-Salcedo
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    Rawan Mackieh, Nadia Al-Bakkar, Milena Kfoury, Nathalie Okdeh, Hervé Pietra, Rabih Roufayel, Christian Legros, Ziad Fajloun, Jean-Marc Sabatier
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    Food Frontiers.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Froso Petridi, Jan M. W. Geurts, Jean Nyakayiru, Anne Schaafsma, Dedmer Schaafsma, Ruth C. R. Meex, Cécile M. Singh-Povel
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    Abeer Khalid Al-Ghumlas
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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  • Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Hypothalamus–Pituitary–Thyroid Axis, Palatable Food Intake, and Body Weight in Stressed Rats
    Cinthia García-Luna, Ixchel Prieto, Paulina Soberanes-Chávez, Elena Alvarez-Salas, Iván Torre-Villalvazo, Gilberto Matamoros-Trejo, Patricia de Gortari
    Nutrients.2023; 15(5): 1164.     CrossRef
  • Possible homeostatic, glucose uptake mechanisms and hepato-pancreatic histological effects of intermittent fasting, exercise, starvation, and honey in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats
    Ejime A. Chijiokwu, Eze K. Nwangwa, Mega O. Oyovwi, Benneth Ben-Azu, Alexander O. Naiho, Emuesiri Goodies Moke, Victor Emojevwe, Prosper A. Ehiwarior, Udoka S. Nwabuoku
    Nutrire.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Mid-Point of the Active Phase Is Better to Achieve the Natriuretic Effect of Acute Salt Load in Mice
    Momoko Imamura, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Katsuki Hayashi, Shigenobu Shibata
    Nutrients.2023; 15(7): 1679.     CrossRef
  • All That Glitters Is Not Gold: The Same Sleep Time, but Different Diabetogenic Outcomes
    Bohye Kim, Obin Kwon
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(1): 78.     CrossRef
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    Xuemin Peng, Yong Chen
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Zhangyuting He, Huayu Yang, Yilei Mao
    Current Pharmaceutical Design.2023; 29(8): 559.     CrossRef
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    Anthony H. Cincotta
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(17): 13255.     CrossRef
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    Marcos Maroto-Gómez, María Malfaz, Álvaro Castro-González, Sara Carrasco-Martínez, Miguel Ángel Salichs
    Biomimetics.2023; 8(5): 413.     CrossRef
  • Intermittent Fasting on Human Health and Disease
    Denisa Marilena Margină, Cristina Manuela Drăgoi
    Nutrients.2023; 15(21): 4491.     CrossRef
  • Synthetic augmentation of bilirubin metabolism in human pluripotent stem cell-derived liver organoids
    Hasan Al Reza, Zishaan Farooqui, Abid Al Reza, Callen Conroy, Kentaro Iwasawa, Yasuhiro Ogura, Keisuke Okita, Kenji Osafune, Takanori Takebe
    Stem Cell Reports.2023; 18(11): 2071.     CrossRef
  • Average phenotype but not plasticity in two metabolic hormones covary in wild female bonobos (Pan paniscus)
    Ruth Sonnweber, Gottfried Hohmann, Jeroen M. G. Stevens, Tobias Deschner, Barbara Fruth, Anna-Lena Fiedler, Niina O. Nurmi, Verena Behringer
    Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Intermittent fasting, high-intensity interval training, or a combination of both have beneficial effects in obese mice with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Patrícia de Castro-de-Paiva, Thatiany de Souza Marinho, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Marcia Barbosa Aguila
    The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry.2022; 104: 108997.     CrossRef
  • Optimal Timing of Thyroid Hormone Replacement During Ramadan Fasting: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Patients with Prior Total Thyroidectomy
    Khalid M. Al-Qahtani, Ibraheem Ahmed Aldeeri, Amal M. Alshaibi, Norah Salman Alshabib, Rakan M. Barghouthi, Ebtihal Y. Alyusuf, Anwar Ali Jammah
    Thyroid.2022; 32(9): 1029.     CrossRef
  • Exploring the Effects of Energy Constraints on Performance, Body Composition, Endocrinological/Hematological Biomarkers, and Immune System among Athletes: An Overview of the Fasting State
    Hadi Nobari, Saber Saedmocheshi, Eugenia Murawska-Ciałowicz, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Ana Filipa Silva
    Nutrients.2022; 14(15): 3197.     CrossRef
  • Alternate day fasting and time-restricted feeding may confer similar neuroprotective effects during aging in male rats
    Sukanya Bhoumik, Rashmi Kesherwani, Raushan Kumar, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
    Biogerontology.2022; 23(6): 757.     CrossRef
  • Intermittent Fasting—A Healthy Dietary Pattern for Diabetic Nephropathy
    Ming Yang, Wei Chen, Liyu He, Di Liu, Li Zhao, Xi Wang
    Nutrients.2022; 14(19): 3995.     CrossRef
  • β-hydroxybutyrate as an Anti-Aging Metabolite
    Lian Wang, Peijie Chen, Weihua Xiao
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Close layer
Original Articles
Clinical Study
Fasting and Postprandial Hyperglycemia: Their Predictors and Contributions to Overall Hyperglycemia in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Jaecheol Moon, Ji Young Kim, Soyeon Yoo, Gwanpyo Koh
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(2):290-297.   Published online June 24, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.35.2.290
  • 7,250 View
  • 214 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study aimed to identify factors that affect fasting hyperglycemia (FHG) and postprandial hyperglycemia (PPG) and their contributions to overall hyperglycemia in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
This was a retrospective study conducted on 194 Korean T2DM patients with 7-point self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) profiles plotted in 4 days in 3 consecutive months. We calculated the areas corresponding to FHG and PPG (area under the curve [AUC]FHG and AUCPPG) and contributions (%) in the graph of the 7-point SMBG data. The levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were categorized by tertiles, and the contributions of FHG and PPG were compared.
Results
The relative contribution of FHG increased (44.7%±5.6%, 58.0%±4.4%, 66.5%±2.8%; PANOVA=0.002, PTREND <0.001), while that of PPG decreased (55.3%±5.5%, 42.0%±4.4%, 33.5%±2.8%; PANOVA=0.002, PTREND <0.001) with the elevated HbA1c. Multivariate analysis showed that HbA1c (β=0.615, P<0.001), waist circumference (β=0.216, P=0.042), and triglyceride (β=0.121, P=0.048) had a significant association with AUCFHG. Only HbA1c (β=0.231, P=0.002) and age (β=0.196, P=0.009) was significantly associated with AUCPPG.
Conclusion
The data suggested that in Korean T2DM patients, FHG predominantly contributed to overall hyperglycemia at higher HbA1c levels, whereas it contributed to PPG at lower HbA1c levels. It is recommended that certain factors, namely age, degree of glycemic control, obesity, or triglyceride levels, should be considered when prescribing medications for T2DM patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Basal Hyperglycemia Contributes More Than 50% to Time in Range in Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes
    Ping Ling, Daizhi Yang, Chaofan Wang, Xueying Zheng, Sihui Luo, Xubin Yang, Hongrong Deng, Wen Xu, Jinhua Yan, Jianping Weng
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Tingting Li, Yang Xie, Shuman Tao, Liwei Zou, Yajuan Yang, Fangbiao Tao, Xiaoyan Wu
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of mulberry twig alkaloids(Sangzhi alkaloids) and metformin on blood glucose fluctuations in combination with premixed insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes
    Ziyu Meng, Chengye Xu, Haoling Liu, Xinyuan Gao, Xinyu Li, Wenjian Lin, Xuefei Ma, Changwei Yang, Ming Hao, Kangqi Zhao, Yuxin Hu, Yi Wang, Hongyu Kuang
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluating Triglyceride and Glucose Index as a Simple and Easy-to-Calculate Marker for All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality
    Kyung-Soo Kim, Sangmo Hong, You-Cheol Hwang, Hong-Yup Ahn, Cheol-Young Park
    Journal of General Internal Medicine.2022; 37(16): 4153.     CrossRef
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    Jing Ma, Hua He, Xiaojie Yang, Dawei Chen, Cuixia Tan, Li Zhong, Qiling Du, Xiaohua Wu, Yunyi Gao, Guanjian Liu, Chun Wang, Xingwu Ran
    Nutrition & Diabetes.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Close layer
Diabetes
Association between White Blood Cell Counts within Normal Range and Hemoglobin A1c in a Korean Population
Jae Won Hong, Jung Hyun Noh, Dong-Jun Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2018;33(1):79-87.   Published online January 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2018.33.1.79
  • 4,845 View
  • 54 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background

We examined whether white blood cell (WBC) count levels within normal range, could be associated with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels.

Methods

Among the 11,472 people (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2011 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination, subjects with chronic disease or illness, including 807 patients with diabetes currently taking anti-diabetic medications and/or 1,149 subjects with WBC levels <4,000 or >10,000/µL were excluded.

Results

Overall, adjusted HbA1c levels increased across the WBC quartiles (5.55%±0.01%, 5.58%±0.01%, 5.60%±0.01%, and 5.65%±0.01%, P<0.001) after adjusting for confounding factors, such as age, gender, fasting plasma glucose, college graduation, smoking history, waist circumference, presence of hypertension, serum total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, and presence of anemia. The adjusted proportions (%) of HbA1c levels of ≥5.7%, ≥6.1%, and ≥6.5% showed significant increases across WBC quartiles (P<0.001, P=0.002, and P=0.022, respectively). Logistic regression analyses of WBC quartiles for the risk of HbA1c levels of ≥5.7%, ≥6.1%, and ≥6.5%, using the variables above as covariates, showed that the odds ratios of the fourth quartile of WBCs were 1.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 1.89; P<0.001), 1.78 (95% CI, 1.31 to 2.42; P<0.001), and 2.03 (95% CI, 1.13 to 3.64; P=0.018), using the first quartile of WBCs as the reference.

Conclusion

HbA1c levels were positively associated with WBC levels within normal range in a general adult population.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Vitamin D supplementation modulates glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c) in diabetes mellitus
    Asma Akhter, Sultan Alouffi, Uzma Shahab, Rihab Akasha, Mohd Fazal-Ur-Rehman, Mohamed E. Ghoniem, Naved Ahmad, Kirtanjot Kaur, Ramendra Pati Pandey, Ahmed Alshammari, Firoz Akhter, Saheem Ahmad
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics.2024; 753: 109911.     CrossRef
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    Hoda Atef Abdelsattar Ibrahim, Sherif Kaddah, Sara Mohamed Elkhateeb, Abeer Aboalazayem, Aya Ahmed Amin, Mahmoud Marei Marei
    Annals of Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Chiao-Nan Chen, Ting-Chung Chen, Shiow-Chwen Tsai, Chii-Min Hwu
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    Em Yunir, Dicky L. Tahapary, Tri Juli Edi Tarigan, Dante Saksono Harbuwono, Yoga Dwi Oktavianda, Melly Kristanti, Eni Iswati, Angela Sarumpaet, Pradana Soewondo
    Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders.2021; 20(1): 805.     CrossRef
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    Min Kang, Seok-Joon Sohn
    Journal of Health Informatics and Statistics.2021; 46(3): 247.     CrossRef
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    Maria Belén Vilanova, Josep Franch-Nadal, Mireia Falguera, Josep Ramon Marsal, Sílvia Canivell, Esther Rubinat, Neus Miró, Àngels Molló, Manel Mata-Cases, Mònica Gratacòs, Esmeralda Castelblanco, Dídac Mauricio
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Adrenal gland
Association between the Growth Hormone Receptor Exon 3 Polymorphism and Metabolic Factors in Korean Patients with Acromegaly
Hye Yoon Park, In Ryang Hwang, Jung Bum Seo, Su Won Kim, Hyun Ae Seo, In Kyu Lee, Jung Guk Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2015;30(3):312-317.   Published online January 5, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2015.30.3.312
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  • 35 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

This study investigated the association between the frequency of growth hormone receptor (GHR) exon 3 polymorphism (exon 3 deletion; d3-GHR) and metabolic factors in patients with acromegaly in Korea.

Methods

DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 30 unrelated patients with acromegaly. GHR genotypes were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and correlated with demographic data and laboratory parameters.

Results

No patient had the d3/d3 genotype, while four (13.3%) had the d3/fl genotype, and 26 (86.7%) had the fl/fl genotype. Body mass index (BMI) in patients with the d3/fl genotype was significantly higher than in those with the fl/fl genotype (P=0.001). Age, gender, blood pressure, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth hormone, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels showed no significant differences between the two genotypes.

Conclusion

The d3-GHR polymorphism may be associated with high BMI but not with other demographic characteristics or laboratory parameters.

Citations

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  • The Exon 3-Deleted Growth Hormone Receptor (d3GHR) Polymorphism—A Favorable Backdoor Mechanism for the GHR Function
    Ghadeer Falah, Lital Sharvit, Gil Atzmon
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(18): 13908.     CrossRef
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    Xiaotian Chen, Chunlan Liu, Song Yang, Yaming Yang, Yanchun Chen, Xianghai Zhao, Weiguang Zhu, Qihui Zhao, Chuan Ni, Xiangyuan Huang, Weili Yan, Chong Shen, Harvest F. Gu
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    Reetobrata Basu, Yanrong Qian, John J Kopchick
    European Journal of Endocrinology.2018; 178(5): R155.     CrossRef
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    Cesar L Boguszewski, Edna J L Barbosa, Per-Arne Svensson, Gudmundur Johannsson, Camilla A M Glad
    European Journal of Endocrinology.2017; 177(6): R309.     CrossRef
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Review Article
Changes in Growth Hormone-Axis Function in Nutrient Excess or Deprivation.
Seungjoon Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(4):279-284.   Published online December 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.4.279
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Growth hormone (GH) is produced in a select population of cells, somatotropes, located in the anterior pituitary gland. GH is released into the general circulation where it interacts with multiple peripheral tissues through its receptor, GH receptor, to regulate growth and metabolic function. GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin are the primary positive and negative regulators of GH secretion, respectively. More recently, ghrelin has emerged as an additional stimulatory hormone for GH release. In humans, GH levels decrease in states of nutrient excess, such as obesity, and increase in response to nutrient deprivation, such as fasting, type 1 diabetes, and anorexia nervosa. Considering that GH regulates metabolism of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein, clarifying the mechanisms by which metabolic changes alter pituitary GH synthesis and secretion will increase our knowledge on the pathophysiology and treatment of metabolic diseases. In this review, the effect of nutrient excess and nutrient deficiency on GH-axis function in humans and other mammals will be summarized, with particular emphasis on studies exploring the direct effects of systemic signals, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin, on somatotrope function. Additionally, new mouse models with somatotrope-specific knockout of IGF-1 and insulin receptors generated by using the Cre/loxP system will be discussed.
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Original Articles
The Effect of Leptin Level Fluctuations by a Repeated Fasting/Refeeding on the Leptin Sensitivity in OLETF Rats.
Sung Chul Park, Yong Hoon Park, So Young Park, Jong Yeon Kim, Yoon Ki Park, Tae Hyung Lee, Kyu Chang Won, Yong Woon Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(5):310-318.   Published online October 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2008.23.5.310
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  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Leptin resistance is a common feature in obese subjects and animals, and this is commonly accompanied with hyperleptinemia. We speculated that one of the causes of leptin resistance is a persistently elevated leptin concentration and then we hypothesized that fluctuations of serum leptin would increase leptin sensitivity in the leptin-resistant state. METHODS: We used a repeated fasting and refeeding (RFR) protocol to produce fluctuation in leptin levels in 7 month-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats, We then measured the leptin sensitivity following an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of leptin. RESULTS: The OLETF rats exhibited severe visceral fat deposition, hyperleptinemia and leptin resistance. However, in the OLETF-RFR rats, the anorexic effect following i.c.v. leptin infusion was restored. Moreover, the visceral fat mass and serum leptin levels decreased, while the serum adiponectin levels were elevated in the OLETF-RFR rats compared to the OLETF-Control rats. The leptin receptor content in the hypothalamus increased in the OLETF-RFR rats compared to the OLETF-Control rats, and the leptin receptor content in the OLETF-RFR rats decreased compared to that in the the LETO-Control rats. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the intermittent suppression of the serum leptin level reversed the leptin resistance in OLEFT rats, and this may have occurred due to an increased number of leptin receptors in the hypothalamus.

Citations

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  • Reduced Striatal Dopamine Transporter Availability and Heightened Response to Natural and Pharmacological Stimulation in CCK-1R-Deficient Obese Rats
    Sevag Hamamah, Andras Hajnal, Mihai Covasa
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(11): 9773.     CrossRef
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    Yong Woon Kim
    Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine.2013; 30(1): 4.     CrossRef
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    Ki Hoon Kim, Hyun Kook Kim
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    Min Seon Kim
    Journal of Korean Endocrine Society.2008; 23(5): 298.     CrossRef
Close layer
Changes in Hypothalamic-pituitary-growth Hormone (GH) Axis by Fasting: Study on the Differences between Male and Female Rats.
Sookjin Sohn, Mina Lee, Seungjoon Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2002;17(4):473-485.   Published online August 1, 2002
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  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Fasting has a profound impact on GH synthesis, and is released in all mammalian species that have been studied. The male rat has long been used as a model to determine the mechanism on how fasting mediates these changes. However, many aspects of GH synthesis, release and function are known to be gender-dependent. This study was conducted in order to determine if changes in the GH-axis, in response to fasting, differs between the sexes. METHODS: Male and female rats (8~9 weeks; n=5/group) were fasted for 72h, or supplied food ad libitum. The mean circulating serum GH and IGF-I concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. The levels of hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), somatostatin (SRIF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pituitary GH mRNA were measured using an RNase protection assay. The levels of pituitary GHRH receptor (GHRH-R), GH secretagogue (GHS) receptor (GHS-R) and SRIF receptor (sst1-5) mRNA were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Fasting resulted in a comparable weight loss in both the males and the females, (18.0+/-0.9%) and (17.0 0.8%), respectively. In the fasted males, there was a characteristic decrease in the serum GH (98 60 vs. 7 4 ng/mL) and IGF-I (367 35 vs 152 12 ng/mL), associated with a decrease in the hypothalamic GHRH, and an increase in the NPY mRNA, levels of 52 6% and 138 6%, respectively, compared to those of the fed controls (p<0.05). In spite of the reduction in the GHRH, fasting did not alter the levels of the pituitary GH mRNA, and in fact increased the expression of the pituitary receptors, GHRH-R and GHS-R, to 185 15 and 169 25%, respectively, to those of the fed controls. In contrast to the positive impact of fasting on the GH-stimulatory receptors, fasting led to a dramatic decrease in the expressions of the somatostatin receptor subtypes, sst2 (29+/-5% of Fed) and sst4 (60+/-7% of Fed). Fasting had comparable effects on the GH-axis of the female rats, with two notable exceptions; first, fasting did not suppress the mean circulating GH levels (16 3 vs. 38 28 ng/mL) and second, did not alter the sst2 and sst4 expressions. CONCLUSION: These results corroborate the other reports regarding the effects of fasting on the expressions of hypothalamic neuropeptides, pituitary GHRH-R and sst2, in male rats. This is the first report demonstrating that fasting stimulates the expression of pituitary GHS-R in both sexes. This is of great interest given the fact that ghrelin, the putative GHS-R ligand, is also elevated by fasting. We propose that the upregulation of both ghrelin and GHS-R may play important roles in increasing the sensitivity of the pituitary to GHRH, in that these GH-stimulatory systems work synergistically. These changes may compensate for the fasting-induced suppression of hypothalamic GHRH input. We might speculate that such compensatory mechanisms are dominant in the female rat, in that circulating GH levels are not suppressed by fasting.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism