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Review Articles
Thyroid
A Narrative Review of the 2023 Korean Thyroid Association Management Guideline for Patients with Thyroid Nodules
Eun Kyung Lee, Young Joo Park, Chan Kwon Jung, Dong Gyu Na
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):61-72.   Published online February 14, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1938
  • 2,685 View
  • 186 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The 2023 Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) Management Guideline for Patients with Thyroid Nodules constitute an update of the 2016 KTA guideline for thyroid nodules and cancers that focuses specifically on nodules. The 2023 guideline aim to offer updated guidance based on new evidence that reflects the changes in clinical practice since the 2016 KTA guideline. To update the 2023 guideline, a comprehensive literature search was conducted from January 2022 to May 2022. The literature search included studies, reviews, and other evidence involving human subjects that were published in English in MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, and other relevant databases. Additional significant clinical trials and research studies published up to April 2023 were also reviewed. The limitations of the current evidence are discussed, and suggestions for areas in need of further research are identified. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of the 2023 KTA guideline for the management of thyroid nodules released in May 2023 and to give a balanced insight with comparison of recent guidelines from other societies.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • 2023 Update of the Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Thyroid Nodules
    Eun Kyung Lee, Young Joo Park
    Clinical Thyroidology®.2024; 36(4): 153.     CrossRef
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Thyroid
Novel and Advanced Ultrasound Techniques for Thyroid Thermal Ablation
Wai-Kin Chan, Jui-Hung Sun, Miaw-Jene Liou, Chia-Jung Hsu, Yu-Ling Lu, Wei-Yu Chou, Yan-Rong Li, Feng-Hsuan Liu
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):40-46.   Published online February 13, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1917
  • 2,262 View
  • 144 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Thyroid radiofrequency ablation and microwave ablation are widely adopted minimally invasive treatments for diverse thyroid conditions worldwide. Fundamental skills such as the trans-isthmic approach and the moving shot technique are crucial for performing thyroid ablation, and advanced techniques, including hydrodissection and vascular ablation, improve safety and efficacy and reduce complications. Given the learning curve associated with ultrasound-guided therapeutic procedures, operators need training and experience. While training models exist, limited attention has been given to ultrasound maneuvers in ablation needle manipulation. This article introduces two essential maneuvers, the zigzag moving technique and the alienate maneuver, while also reviewing the latest ultrasound techniques in thyroid ablation, contributing valuable insights into this evolving field.
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Original Articles
Thyroid
The Diagnostic Role of Repeated Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules with Atypia of Undetermined Significance with Architectural Atypia on Core-Needle Biopsy
Hye Hyeon Moon, Sae Rom Chung, Young Jun Choi, Tae-Yon Sung, Dong Eun Song, Tae Yong Kim, Jeong Hyun Lee, Jung Hwan Baek
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(2):300-309.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1818
  • 1,341 View
  • 51 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We aimed to evaluate the utility of repeat biopsy of thyroid nodules classified as atypia of undetermined significance with architectural atypia (IIIB) on core-needle biopsy (CNB).
Methods
This retrospective study evaluated patients with thyroid nodules categorized as IIIB on CNB between 2013 and 2015. Demographic characteristics, subsequent biopsy results, and ultrasound (US) images were evaluated. The malignancy rates of nodules according to number of CNBs and the number of IIIB diagnoses was compared. Demographic and US features were evaluated to determine factors predictive of malignancy.
Results
Of 1,003 IIIB nodules on CNB, the final diagnosis was determined for 328 (32.7%) nodules, with 121 of them confirmed as malignant, resulting in a malignancy rate of 36.9% (95% confidence interval, 31.7% to 42.1%). Repeat CNB was performed in 248 nodules (24.7%), with 75 (30.2%), 131 (52.8%), 13 (5.2%), 26 (10.5%), one (0.4%), and two (0.8%) reclassified into categories II, IIIB, IIIA, IV, V, and VI, respectively. Malignancy rates were not significantly affected by the number of CNBs (P=0.291) or the number of IIIB diagnoses (P=0.473). None of the nodules confirmed as category II on repeat CNB was malignant. US features significantly associated with malignancy (P<0.003) included solid composition, irregular margins, microcalcifications, and high suspicion on the US risk stratification system.
Conclusion
Repeat biopsy of nodules diagnosed with IIIB on CNB did not increase the detection of malignancy but can potentially reduce unnecessary surgery. Repeat biopsy should be performed selectively, with US features guiding the choice between repeat biopsy and diagnostic surgery.
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Thyroid
Thyroid Cancer Screening
Diagnostic Performance of Ultrasound-Based Risk Stratification Systems for Thyroid Nodules: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Leehi Joo, Min Kyoung Lee, Ji Ye Lee, Eun Ju Ha, Dong Gyu Na
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(1):117-128.   Published online February 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1670
  • 2,599 View
  • 177 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study investigated the diagnostic performance of biopsy criteria in four society ultrasonography risk stratification systems (RSSs) for thyroid nodules, including the 2021 Korean (K)-Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS).
Methods
The Ovid-MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and KoreaMed databases were searched and a manual search was conducted to identify original articles investigating the diagnostic performance of biopsy criteria for thyroid nodules (≥1 cm) in four widely used society RSSs.
Results
Eleven articles were included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 82% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74% to 87%) and 60% (95% CI, 52% to 67%) for the American College of Radiology (ACR)-TIRADS, 89% (95% CI, 85% to 93%) and 34% (95% CI, 26% to 42%) for the American Thyroid Association (ATA) system, 88% (95% CI, 81% to 92%) and 42% (95% CI, 22% to 67%) for the European (EU)-TIRADS, and 96% (95% CI, 94% to 97%) and 21% (95% CI, 17% to 25%) for the 2016 K-TIRADS. The sensitivity and specificity were 76% (95% CI, 74% to 79%) and 50% (95% CI, 49% to 52%) for the 2021 K-TIRADS1.5 (1.5-cm size cut-off for intermediate-suspicion nodules). The pooled unnecessary biopsy rates of the ACR-TIRADS, ATA system, EU-TIRADS, and 2016 K-TIRADS were 41% (95% CI, 32% to 49%), 65% (95% CI, 56% to 74%), 68% (95% CI, 60% to 75%), and 79% (95% CI, 74% to 83%), respectively. The unnecessary biopsy rate was 50% (95% CI, 47% to 53%) for the 2021 K-TIRADS1.5.
Conclusion
The unnecessary biopsy rate of the 2021 K-TIRADS1.5 was substantially lower than that of the 2016 K-TIRADS and comparable to that of the ACR-TIRADS. The 2021 K-TIRADS may help reduce potential harm due to unnecessary biopsies.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Accuracy of ultrasound in predicting thyroid malignancy: a comparative analysis of the ACR TI-RADS and ATA risk stratification systems
    Shaza Samargandy, Aliaa H. Ghoneim
    Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Korean Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Patients with Thyroid Nodules 2024
    Young Joo Park, Eun Kyung Lee, Young Shin Song, Su Hwan Kang, Bon Seok Koo, Sun Wook Kim, Dong Gyu Na, Seung-Kuk Baek, So Won Oh, Min Kyoung Lee, Sang-Woo Lee, Young Ah Lee, Yong Sang Lee, Ji Ye Lee, Dong-Jun Lim, Leehi Joo, Yuh-Seog Jung, Chan Kwon Jung,
    International Journal of Thyroidology.2024; 17(1): 208.     CrossRef
  • To Screen or Not to Screen?
    Do Joon Park
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(1): 69.     CrossRef
  • The 2017 United States Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation for Thyroid Cancer Screening Is No Longer the Gold Standard
    Ka Hee Yi
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(1): 72.     CrossRef
  • Thyroid Cancer Screening: How to Maximize Its Benefits and Minimize Its Harms
    Jung Hwan Baek
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(1): 75.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Korean Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Patients with Thyroid Nodules
    Young Joo Park, Eun Kyung Lee, Young Shin Song, Soo Hwan Kang, Bon Seok Koo, Sun Wook Kim, Dong Gyu Na, Seung-Kuk Baek, So Won Oh, Min Kyoung Lee, Sang-Woo Lee, Young Ah Lee, Yong Sang Lee, Ji Ye Lee, Dong-Jun Lim, Leehi Joo, Yuh-Seog Jung, Chan Kwon Jung
    International Journal of Thyroidology.2023; 16(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the Appropriateness of Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration
    Lairce Cristina Ribeiro Brito, Iara Beatriz De Carvalho Botêlho, Lanna Matos Silva Fernandes, Nayze Lucena Sangreman Aldeman, Uziel Nunes Silva
    International Journal for Innovation Education and Research.2023; 11(6): 8.     CrossRef
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Thyroid
Thyroid Cancer Screening
A Comprehensive Assessment of the Harms of Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy for Thyroid Nodules: A Systematic Review
Ji Yong Park, Wonsuk Choi, A Ram Hong, Jee Hee Yoon, Hee Kyung Kim, Ho-Cheol Kang
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(1):104-116.   Published online February 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1669
  • 4,432 View
  • 177 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
There have concerns related with the potential harms of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). We aimed to summarize the clinical complications and evaluate the safety of FNAB.
Methods
Studies related with the harms of FNAB were searched on MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane library, and KoreaMed from 2012 to 2022. Also, studies reviewed in the previous systematic reviews were evaluated. Included clinical complications were postprocedural pain, bleeding events, neurological symptoms, tracheal puncture, infections, post-FNAB thyrotoxicosis, and needle tract implantation of thyroid cancers.
Results
Twenty-three cohort studies were included in this review. Nine studies which were related with FNAB-related pain showed that most of the subjects had no or mild discomfort. The 0% to 6.4% of the patients had hematoma or hemorrhage after FNAB, according to 15 studies. Vasovagal reaction, vocal cord palsy, and tracheal puncture have rarely described in the included studies. Needle tract implantation of thyroid malignancies was described in three studies reporting 0.02% to 0.19% of the incidence rate.
Conclusion
FNAB is considered to be a safe diagnostic procedure with rare complications, which are mainly minor events. Thorough assessement of the patients’ medical condition when deciding to perform FNABs would be advisable to lower potential complications.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A Narrative Review of the 2023 Korean Thyroid Association Management Guideline for Patients with Thyroid Nodules
    Eun Kyung Lee, Young Joo Park, Chan Kwon Jung, Dong Gyu Na
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2024; 39(1): 61.     CrossRef
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology for neck lesions in patients with antithrombotic/anticoagulant medications: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Dongbin Ahn, Ji Hye Kwak, Gill Joon Lee, Jin Ho Sohn
    European Radiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • 2023 Update of the Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Thyroid Nodules
    Eun Kyung Lee, Young Joo Park
    Clinical Thyroidology®.2024; 36(4): 153.     CrossRef
  • Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines on the Management of Differentiated Thyroid Cancers; Part II. Follow-up Surveillance after Initial Treatment 2024
    Mijin Kim, Ji-In Bang, Ho-Cheol Kang, Sun Wook Kim, Dong Gyu Na, Young Joo Park, Youngduk Seo, Young Shin Song, So Won Oh, Sang-Woo Lee, Eun Kyung Lee, Ji Ye Lee, Dong-Jun Lim, Ari Chong, Yun Jae Chung, Chae Moon Hong, Min Kyoung Lee, Bo Hyun Kim
    International Journal of Thyroidology.2024; 17(1): 115.     CrossRef
  • To Screen or Not to Screen?
    Do Joon Park
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(1): 69.     CrossRef
  • Thyroid Cancer Screening: How to Maximize Its Benefits and Minimize Its Harms
    Jung Hwan Baek
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(1): 75.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the Appropriateness of Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration
    Lairce Cristina Ribeiro Brito, Iara Beatriz De Carvalho Botêlho, Lanna Matos Silva Fernandes, Nayze Lucena Sangreman Aldeman, Uziel Nunes Silva
    International Journal for Innovation Education and Research.2023; 11(6): 8.     CrossRef
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Review Article
Thyroid
Update from the 2022 World Health Organization Classification of Thyroid Tumors: A Standardized Diagnostic Approach
Chan Kwon Jung, Andrey Bychkov, Kennichi Kakudo
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(5):703-718.   Published online October 4, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1553
  • 19,413 View
  • 2,369 Download
  • 58 Web of Science
  • 75 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The fifth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) histologic classification of thyroid neoplasms released in 2022 includes newly recognized tumor types, subtypes, and a grading system. Follicular cell-derived neoplasms are categorized into three families (classes): benign tumors, low-risk neoplasms, and malignant neoplasms. The terms “follicular nodular disease” and “differentiated high-grade thyroid carcinoma” are introduced to account for multifocal hyperplastic/neoplastic lesions and differentiated thyroid carcinomas with high-grade features, respectively. The term “Hürthle cells” is replaced with “oncocytic cells.” Invasive encapsulated follicular and cribriform morular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are now redefined as distinct tumor types, given their different genetic alterations and clinicopathologic characteristics from other PTC subtypes. The term “variant” to describe a subclass of tumor has been replaced with the term “subtype.” Instead, the term “variant” is reserved to describe genetic alterations. A histologic grading system based on the mitotic count, necrosis, and/or the Ki67 index is used to identify high-grade follicular-cell derived carcinomas and medullary thyroid carcinomas. The 2022 WHO classification introduces the following new categories: “salivary gland-type carcinomas of the thyroid” and “thyroid tumors of uncertain histogenesis.” This review summarizes the major changes in the 2022 WHO classification and their clinical relevance.

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    Chan Kwon Jung, Shipra Agarwal, Jen-Fan Hang, Dong-Jun Lim, Andrey Bychkov, Ozgur Mete
    Endocrine Pathology.2023; 34(1): 1.     CrossRef
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    Endocrine.2023; 80(3): 470.     CrossRef
  • Preoperative Risk Stratification of Follicular-patterned Thyroid Lesions on Core Needle Biopsy by Histologic Subtyping and RAS Variant-specific Immunohistochemistry
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    Endocrine Pathology.2023; 34(2): 247.     CrossRef
  • Ultrasound evolution of parenchymal changes in the thyroid gland with autoimmune thyroiditis in children prior to the development of papillary thyroid carcinoma – a follow-up study
    Dominika Januś, Monika Kujdowicz, Małgorzata Wójcik, Anna Taczanowska-Niemczuk, Aleksandra Kiszka-Wiłkojć, Wojciech Górecki, Jerzy B. Starzyk
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma with aggressive fused follicular and solid growth pattern: A unique histological subtype with high‐grade malignancy?
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  • Multi-Omics and Management of Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid
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    Biomedicines.2023; 11(4): 1217.     CrossRef
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Close layer
Original Articles
Thyroid
Diagnostic Performance of Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy Using the Revised Reporting System: Comparison with Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology
Kwangsoon Kim, Ja Seong Bae, Jeong Soo Kim, So Lyung Jung, Chan Kwon Jung
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(1):159-169.   Published online February 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1299
  • 4,486 View
  • 179 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We aim to validate the diagnostic performance of thyroid core needle biopsy (CNB) for diagnosing malignancy in clinical settings to align with the changes made in recently updated thyroid CNB guidelines.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed 1,381 thyroid CNB and 2,223 fine needle aspiration (FNA) samples. The FNA and CNB slides were interpreted according to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology and updated practice guidelines for thyroid CNB, respectively.
Results
Compared to FNA, CNB showed lower rates of inconclusive results: categories I (2.8% vs. 11.2%) and III (1.2% vs. 6.2%), and higher rates of categories II (60.9% vs. 50.4%) and IV (17.5% vs. 2.0%). The upper and lower bounds of the risk of malignancy (ROM) for category IV of CNB were 43.2% and 26.6%, respectively. The CNB subcategory IVb with nuclear atypia had a higher ROM than the subcategory without nuclear atypia (40%–62% vs. 23%–36%). In histologically confirmed cases, there was no significant difference in the diagnostic performance between CNB and FNA for malignancy. However, neoplastic diseases were more frequently detected by CNB than by FNA (88.8% vs. 77.6%, P=0.046). In category IV, there was no difference in unnecessary surgery rate between CNB and FNA (4.7% vs. 6.9%, P=0.6361).
Conclusion
Thyroid CNB decreased the rate of inconclusive results and showed a higher category IV diagnostic rate than FNA. The revised guidelines for thyroid CNB proved to be an excellent reporting system for assessing thyroid nodules.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Muzaffer Serdar Deniz, Merve Dindar
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    Young Joo Park, Eun Kyung Lee, Young Shin Song, Su Hwan Kang, Bon Seok Koo, Sun Wook Kim, Dong Gyu Na, Seung-Kuk Baek, So Won Oh, Min Kyoung Lee, Sang-Woo Lee, Young Ah Lee, Yong Sang Lee, Ji Ye Lee, Dong-Jun Lim, Leehi Joo, Yuh-Seog Jung, Chan Kwon Jung,
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    Chan Kwon Jung
    Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine.2023; 57(4): 208.     CrossRef
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Close layer
Thyroid
Comparison of Korean vs. American Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System in Malignancy Risk Assessment of Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules
Sunyoung Kang, Seul Ki Kwon, Hoon Sung Choi, Min Joo Kim, Young Joo Park, Do Joon Park, Sun Wook Cho
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(5):1111-1120.   Published online October 21, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1208
  • 4,309 View
  • 134 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The management of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules is challenging for clinicians. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (K-TIRADS) with that of the American College of Radiology (ACR)-TIRADS for predicting the malignancy risk of indeterminate thyroid nodules.
Methods
Thyroid nodules diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) followed by surgery or core needle biopsy at a single referral hospital were enrolled.
Results
Among 200 thyroid nodules, 78 (39.0%) nodules were classified as indeterminate by FNA (Bethesda category III, IV, and V), and 114 (57.0%) nodules were finally diagnosed as malignancy by surgery or core needle biopsy. The area under the curve (AUC) was higher for FNA than for either TIRADS system in all nodules, while all three methods showed similar AUCs for indeterminate nodules. However, for Bethesda category III nodules, applying K-TIRADS 5 significantly increased the risk of malignancy compared to a cytological examination alone (50.0% vs. 26.5%, P=0.028), whereas applying ACR-TIRADS did not lead to a change.
Conclusion
K-TIRADS and ACR-TIRADS showed similar diagnostic performance in assessing indeterminate thyroid nodules, and K-TIRADS had beneficial effects for malignancy prediction in Bethesda category III nodules.

Citations

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Close layer
Clinical Study
Efficacy of Ethanol Ablation for Benign Thyroid Cysts and Predominantly Cystic Nodules: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Cheng-Chun Yang, Yung Hsu, Jyun-Yan Liou
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(1):81-95.   Published online February 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.833
  • 6,243 View
  • 233 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures are widely used to treat thyroid diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of ethanol ablation (EA) in comparison with other non-surgical options in the treatment of benign thyroid cystic nodules.
Methods
We conducted a systematic search of studies on EA for thyroid cystic nodules, mainly in the Ovid-MEDLINE and Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases. The standardized mean difference (SMD) of the volume reduction ratio (VRR) after EA versus other non-surgical treatments comprised the primary outcome, whereas the odds ratio (OR) of therapeutic success rates between the two groups comprised the secondary outcome.
Results
The meta-analysis included 19 studies (four randomized controlled trials and 15 non-randomized studies) with 1,514 participants. The cumulative VRR of EA was 83.908% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79.358% to 88.457%). EA had a significantly higher pooled VRR (SMD, 0.381; 95% CI, 0.028 to 0.734; P=0.030), but not a significantly higher pooled therapeutic success rate (OR, 0.867; 95% CI, 0.132 to 5.689; P=0.880), than other forms of non-surgical management including radiofrequency ablation (RFA), polidocanol sclerotherapy, and simple aspiration with or without saline flush. However, the VRR and therapeutic success rate were not significantly different between EA and RFA. Major complications were recorded only in six patients (0.53%) with self-limiting dysphonia.
Conclusion
The role of EA as the first-line treatment for benign thyroid cysts and predominantly cystic nodules is supported by its high effectiveness and good safety profile compared to other currently available non-surgical options.

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    Johannes-Paul Richter, Carl-Philip Richter, Daniel Gröner
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  • Percutaneous ethanol injection in thyroid nodular pathology and metastatic cervical adenopathies: A systematic review, meta-analysis and economic evaluation
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    Liwen Li, Xinguang Qiu
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Close layer
Clinical Study
Effectiveness of Injecting Cold 5% Dextrose into Patients with Nerve Damage Symptoms during Thyroid Radiofrequency Ablation
Min Kyoung Lee, Jung Hwan Baek, Sae Rom Chung, Young Jun Choi, Yu-Mi Lee, Tae Yong Kim, Jeong Hyun Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(2):407-415.   Published online June 24, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.35.2.407
  • 6,286 View
  • 143 Download
  • 15 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Although radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a safe treatment for thyroid tumors, nerve damage is a frequent complication. A previous retrospective study suggested that an injection of cold 5% dextrose in water (5% DW) can reduce nerve damage during RFA. This study validated the efficacy of injecting cold 5% DW for management of nerve damage during RFA.
Methods
Between November 2017 and December 2018, 242 patients underwent 291 RFA sessions for treatment of benign thyroid nodules or recurrent thyroid cancers. Using a standardized technique, cold (0°C to 4°C) 5% DW was immediately injected around the damaged nerve into patients with any symptoms suggesting nerve damage. The incidence of nerve damage, the volume of 5% DW injected, symptom recovery time and the incidence of permanent nerve damage were evaluated.
Results
Nineteen patients experienced nerve damage symptoms related to 21 RFA sessions, including 17 patients during 19 sessions and two patients on the day after two sessions. Patients with nerve damage symptoms detected during RFA were treated by injection of a mean 41 mL (range, 3 to 260) cold 5% DW, but the two patients who experienced symptoms the next day did not receive cold 5% DW injections. Immediate recovery was observed after 15 RFA sessions in 14 patients. No patient experienced permanent nerve damage.
Conclusion
Injection of cold 5% DW is effective in managing nerve damage during RFA of thyroid lesions.

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Clinical Study
Revisiting Rupture of Benign Thyroid Nodules after Radiofrequency Ablation: Various Types and Imaging Features
Sae Rom Chung, Jung Hwan Baek, Jin Yong Sung, Ji Hwa Ryu, So Lyung Jung
Endocrinol Metab. 2019;34(4):415-421.   Published online December 23, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2019.34.4.415
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background

To evaluate the imaging features, clinical manifestations, and prognosis of patients with thyroid nodule rupture after radiofrequency ablation (RFA).

Methods

The records of 12 patients who experienced thyroid nodule rupture after RFA at four Korean thyroid centers between March 2010 and July 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data evaluated included baseline patient characteristics, treatment methods, initial presenting symptoms, imaging features, treatment, and prognosis.

Results

The most common symptoms of post-RFA nodule rupture were sudden neck bulging and pain. Based on imaging features, the localization of nodule rupture was classified into three types: anterior, posterolateral, and medial types. The anterior type is the most often, followed by posterolateral and medial type. Eight patients recovered completely after conservative treatment. Four patients who did not improve with conservative management required invasive procedures, including incision and drainage or aspiration.

Conclusion

Thyroid nodule rupture after RFA can be classified into three types based on its localization: anterior, posterolateral, and medial types. Because majority of thyroid nodule ruptures after RFA can be managed conservatively, familiarity with these imaging features is essential in avoiding unnecessary imaging workup or invasive procedures.

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A Clinical Analysis of 2,500 Cases of Thyroid Nodules in the Korean People.
Chong Suk Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):418-430.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Thyroid nodules are one of the most clinical problems encounted by physieian. Palpation, radianuclide imaging, and sonography do not deterrnine whether a thyroid nodule is benign and malignant. So, the purpose of this study is to investigate how many thyroid cancer consist in thyroid nodule by using the fine needle aspiration(FNA) technique. Methods: With a disposable #23 gauge needle attached to 5rnl disposable plastic syringe was inserted at the thyroid nodules of the patients after rectinilinear thyroid scanning or ultrasono- graphy. All cells aspirated from the thyroid nodules were smeared on the 3 slide glasses and then, 2 slide glasses were immersed in 95% ethanol for Papanicolaou staining and one slide was air dried m room temperature for Giemsa staining. After complete staining the cytologic diagnosis of all slide glasses were reviewed by general light mi~eroscope. Results: Approximately, three-quarters(73.0%) of thyroid nodules aspirated by FNA were diagnosed as benign or inflammatory nodules, rnalignant neoplasia including follicular neoplasia 12.5%, and indeterminate cases 14.5% of thyroid nodules. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration(FNA) has become the diagnostic procedure of choiee in the evaluation of the nodular thyroid disease because of its easiness, safety, cost effectiveness, and high diagnostic accuracy. Malignant neopleasia including follicular neopleasia were found 12.5% of thyroid nodules in Korean, aspirated by FNA which was same category in prevalence rate compared to known abroad results(8~20%).
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The Diagnostic Value of Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Thyroid Nodules.
Yang Hun Koo, Sung Jun Hong, Hwi Choi, Hark Rim, Young Sik Choi, Yo Han Park, Kyung Seung Oh, Hee Kyung Chang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):391-400.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Thyroid nodule is a common disease of thymid gland. The incidence of malignant nodule is about 3%, so most of thyroid nodules are benign. Because most thyroid nodule morbidity is related to cancerous lesions, early detection of malignant nodule is important. However, some of these nodules are srnall sized or deep seated which were not detected by physieal exarnination but by ultrasonography incidentally. In these cases the diagnostic approach is difficult with conventional methods but it is easy with ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA). However, the role of ultrasound-guided FNA on the thyroid nodules has been poorly evaluated, so we tried to assess the diagnostic value of high resolution ultrasound-guided FNA in the thyroid nodules. Methods: We examined the medical records retrospectively of all patients who were engaged in high resolution ultrasonography(ATL Ultramark-9, 10 MHz linear transducer) due to thyroid nodules and/or other thyroid abnormalities from September, 1995 to March, 1996. Ultrasound- guided FNA was performed in 137 patients with palpable or nonpalpable(small sized or deep seated) nodules which were detected by high resolution ultrasonography. Results: The mean age of the patients was 45 and most of them were middle aged. Male to female ratio was 1:8.1. Malignant nodules were frequent in patients over 30 yus of age. Of 137 patients 43 were involutional change, 45 hyperplasia, 12 Hashimotos thyroiditis, 12 follicular neoplasm, ll papillary carcinoma, 1 Hurthle cell tumor, 1 medullary carcinoma, and 12 inadequate specimen. In 22 cases thyroid nodules were not detected by physical examinatian but by ultrasonography and in 31 cases additional thyroid nodules were detected by ultrasonography. In the nature of thyroid nodules, 99 cases were solid, 16 cystic, 22 mixed. Malignant nodule were more frequent in the solid nodule, but thete was no significant difference between each group. The size of masses was categorized into four groups. Thirty-one cases measured less than 1cm, 63 between 1cm and 1.9cm, 29 between 2cm to 2.9cm, and 14 over 3cm. The malignant nodule was not palpable in 3 cases and the smallest was 0.7cm in diameter. Most of malignant lesions were between 1cm and 2.9cm, but the difference of incidence rate of rnalignant nodules between each group was not significant. The incidence rate of malignancy was 8.8% in solitary nodule and 8.7% in multiple nodules. Twenty-three cases including 12 malignancies diagnosed by FNA underwent operation. Of those 13 were papillary earcinoma, 1 follicular carcinoma, 1 medullary carcinoma. Upon the correlation of ultrasound-guided FNA cytology with pathologic diagnosis, the sensitivity of ultrasound-guided FNA cytology in differentiating benign and malignant nodule was 80.0%, the specificity 100% and overall diagnostic accuracy was 86.1%. The obtainability of adequate cytologic specimen by ultrasound-guided FNA was 91%. No complication except pain was noted during this study. Conclusion: High resolution ultrasound-guided FNA cytology in the thyroid nodules may be useful in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer especially in the nodules which were small sized or deep seated and also useful in early detection of recurrence of thyroid cancer.
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Diagnostic Value of Thallium-201 Scan in The Thyroid Nodule.
Jeong Sik Moon, Kee Hyeon Kim, Chul Sung Park, Jae Haak Lee, Gyeong Heon Jeong, Sun Ho Kim, Jung Kyu Lim, Chin Duk Huh, Hyeng Suk Cho, Jang Shin Son
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(2):175-181.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To investigate diagnostic value of Thallium 201(T1-201) thymid scan in differentiating malignant nodule from benign, 135 patients with thyroid nodule were evaluated with Tl-201 thyroid scan, fine needle aspiration(FNA), clinical characteristics and laboratory data. Each had histological diagnosis after thyroidectomy. Tl-201 scan had a sensitivity of 67.3% and a specificity of 66.3% and FNA had sermitivity of 46.9% and specificity of 100% in predicting malignancy. As the size of thyroid nodule and age of patient incteases, diagnostic value of 11-201 thyroid scan was improved. In the thyroid nodules larger then 3cm, sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value were 100%, 70% and 100%, reqectively. By cornbining Tl-201 throid scan and FNA, sensitivity had 91.8%. From the data we conclude that Tl-201 thyroid scan is valuable with adjuvant diagnostic method in differentiating malignant fmm benign thyroid nodule and treatment planning.
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Case Report
A Case of Autonomously Functioning Thyroid Nodule Treated with Percutaneous.
Min Ho Shin, Chun Hee Koo, Young Ju Park, Jeong Yim Lee, Tae Yong Park, Eun Sil Kim, Jong Soon Kim, Seung Soo Han
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(3):258-264.   Published online November 6, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules(AFTNs) are so named because they presumably are independent of TSH for growth and function. In general, surgery and radioactive iodine are effective therapies but reluctant to use because of complications such as hypothyroidism or cosmetic problems.Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy(PEIT) under sonographic guidance has recently been introduced as alternative therapy. But its adverse effects such as severe local pain, subcutaneous hematoma or palsy of the recurrent nerve are not negligible, therefore sufficient skill is required.In this case, the levothyroxine therapy in reducing the size of colloid thyroid nodules was not apparent within three months. Therefore we selected another sclerosing therapeutic method such as percutaneous tetracycline injection(PTI) and followed up thyroid function test, thyroid scan, ultrasonographical size and volume of nodule. The results were as follows: 1) With 0.5-0.8 cc tetracycline injection for three times, the volume of nodule was reduced after PTI; About 2.3 X 1.7 X 0.7 cm sized nodule was reduced to about 1.3 X 1.0 X 0.5 cm sized nodule. 2) There were significant improvements of TFT(subclinical hyperthyroidism to euthyroidism) and thyroid scan(solitary hot nodule to completely ablated AFTN) during 9 months follow-up after PTI as compared with the base line study. In conclusion, we experienced good results in a 22-year-old woman suffered from AFTN treated with PTI and think that PTI could be the effective, safe, simple, well tolerable procedure in the treatment of AFTN.
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