Warning: fopen(/home/virtual/enm-kes/journal/upload/ip_log/ip_log_2024-06.txt): failed to open stream: Permission denied in /home/virtual/lib/view_data.php on line 100 Warning: fwrite() expects parameter 1 to be resource, boolean given in /home/virtual/lib/view_data.php on line 101 Therapeutic Role of Yoga in Type 2 Diabetes
Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism



Page Path
HOME > Endocrinol Metab > Volume 33(3); 2018 > Article
Review Article
Therapeutic Role of Yoga in Type 2 Diabetes
Arkiath Veettil Raveendran1,2orcid, Anjali Deshpandae3, Shashank R. Joshi4
Endocrinology and Metabolism 2018;33(3):307-317.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2018.33.3.307
Published online: August 14, 2018

1Department of General Medicine, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, India.

2Department of Internal Medicine, Badr Al Samaa Hospital, Barka, Oman.

3Padma Yog Sadhana, A Unit of Terna Public Charitable Trust, Navi Mumbai, India.

4Joshi Clinic, Lilavati Hospital and Bhatia Hospital, Mumbai, India.

Corresponding author: Arkiath Veettil Raveendran. Department of Internal Medicine, Badr Al Samaa Hospital, Barka, Oman. Tel: +968-92065598, Fax: +968-26884918, raveendranav@yahoo.co.in
• Received: February 13, 2018   • Revised: April 11, 2018   • Accepted: May 9, 2018

Copyright © 2018 Korean Endocrine Society

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  • 299 Download
  • 47 Web of Science
  • 62 Crossref
  • 50 Scopus
  • Yoga originated in India more than 5,000 years ago and is a means of balancing and harmonizing the body, mind, and emotions. Yoga practice is useful in the management of various lifestyle diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Psycho-neuro-endocrine and immune mechanisms are involved in the beneficial effects of yoga on diabetes. Incorporation of yoga practice in daily life helps to attain glycaemic control and reduces the risk of complications in people with diabetes. In this review, we briefly describe the role of various yoga practices in the management of diabetes based on evidence from various clinical studies.
Type 2 diabetes is a common lifestyle disorder caused by insulin resistance with relative or absolute insulin deficiency, resulting in chronic hyperglycaemia and various cardiovascular complications. Globally, according to the International Diabetes Federation diabetes atlas (eighth edition, 2017), in 2017 there were roughly 425 million people with diabetes, a figure that is projected to increase to 629 million by 2045 [1]. Sedentary habits and unhealthy dietary patterns are the major risk factors for the development of various lifestyle disorders, including diabetes. Psychological stress also increases the risk and severity of diabetes. Lack of physical activity was found to increase the risk of diabetes by 3 times and the risk of coronary artery disease by 2.4 times [2].
Dietary control and exercise are established treatment modalities in patients with type 2 diabetes and other lifestyle disorders, including obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. Urbanisation, the intake of calorie-rich food, use of various machines, less open space for exercise, a busy modern lifestyle, and lack of motivation reduce the likelihood of adherence to dietary control and exercise as a management option in people with diabetes. Moreover, individuals with diabetes have a reduced capacity to engage in exercise because of overweight, physical unfitness, sedentary lifestyle, limited joint mobility, and other diabetes-related complications, including cardiovascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, and diabetic foot problems. Several studies have shown that poor adherence to diet and exercise programs were major limitations in the implementation of non-pharmacological treatments of diabetes.
Yoga, which originated in India more than 5,000 years ago, aims at balancing and harmonizing the body, mind, and emotions [3]. Increasing evidence suggests that yoga practice tackles the pathophysiologic mechanisms of diabetes and helps in controlling diabetes and its complications. In this short review, we briefly describe the role of various yoga practices in the management of diabetes based on evidence from various clinical studies.
Although yoga has been practised since ancient times, yoga as therapy is still a relatively new and emerging trend in the healthcare field. Extensive research has explored changes in biochemical, electrophysiological, cellular, genetic, neuromuscular, and radiological parameters related to yoga practice. This has facilitated the practical application of yoga in various diseases, and it is now being recognized worldwide as a clinically viable treatment. Traditionally a mind-body practice with the ultimate goal of spiritual enlightenment, yoga is a science of health management, rather than a therapy for treating specific diseases [4].
Dietary management of diabetes with yoga
Yoga is also known to regulate eating patterns, and its potential utility in the management of eating disorders has been advocated. It is believed that the mind-body connection that stems from yoga practice provides opportunities for self-awareness, reflection, and change [5]. Yoga, pranayama, and sudarshan kriya were found to be beneficial in improving dietary practices and medication adherence.
Yoga practice and mindful eating
Yoga participation has been correlated with both fruit and vegetable intake, as well as improved eating habits and mindful eating practices [5]. Meditation and ability to heighten mindfulness may be beneficial in controlling binge-eating patterns. Mindful eating in diabetes has shown to facilitate improvements in dietary intake, modest weight loss, and glycaemic control [6].
Recommended practice based on evidence in diabetes
Yoga practice is a complex intervention with various components, including cleansing processes (kriya), postures (asana), controlled breathing (pranayama), meditation, relaxation, chanting mantras, yogic diet, code of conduct, philosophy, and spirituality.
Many yoga practices have been found to be beneficial in the management of type 2 diabetes; however, their judicious use is recommended after a careful assessment of a patient's overall health, individual requirements, associated risk factors, and contraindications (Table 1). By considering the person as a whole, including physical inactivity and poor health behaviours, yoga practices of high or low intensity may be prescribed [5].
Since most studies have evaluated the effects of yoga practices such as postures, pranayama, relaxation, and meditation, the effects of individual yoga postures or other practices are difficult to interpret. Below, information is presented regarding a subset of yoga practices that are known to have beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes, along with their possible mechanisms of action (Table 2).
Cleansing processes
The classical ancient texts Hatha Yoga Pradipika and Gheranda Samhita describe purification/cleansing practices known as shatkarmas. Of these, the practices of vaman dhauti (stomach cleansing with induced vomiting), kapalbhati (frontal brain purification, which is a breathing technique with forceful exhalations and automatic inhalations), and shankhaprakshalana (intestinal cleansing) help to increase the production of insulin and to control blood glucose levels. Regular internal cleansing enhances the functional capacity of the organs.
A study showed that vaman dhauti practice (emetic therapy) caused a marked reduction in fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels [789]. It is believed to increase glucose uptake, minimize insulin resistance, and promote the function of insulin by reducing levels of circulating free fatty acids in the body. The abdominal pressure created during exhalation in kapalbhati improves the efficiency of β-cells of the pancreas. Shankhaprakshalana is the process of cleansing the intestinal tract by practicing a set of yoga postures and drinking lukewarm water with salt in between. This sequence is repeated till only water is evacuated. The level of blood glucose falls significantly with this intestinal cleansing process. It has been claimed that this practice increases insulin production and helps in the control of diabetes [8]. Agnisar kriya (stimulation of the digestive fire) involves pulling the abdomen in (uddiyan bandha) and snapping it backwards and forwards while holding the breath. The ‘vacuum’ effect of this action massages the internal organs and increase blood flow to the area. It boosts metabolism and facilitates the proper functioning of the abdominal organs [9]. This practice is recommended for the management of diabetes [8].
Surya namaskar (sun salutation)
Surya namaskar involves a series of dynamic yoga postures performed in a specific sequence. A brisk surya namaskar performed in an energetic way increases cellular requirements for oxygen and glucose. To meet these requirements, insulin production is stimulated through brain signalling [8].
In a study, a yoga intervention consisting of 25 minutes of surya namaskar along with other yoga postures and a deep relaxation technique in perimenopausal women resulted in a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure and hip circumference, and beneficial effects on glycaemic outcomes [10].
Asanas (yoga postures)
Asanas emphasize the relationship of body, mind, and awareness, focusing on the synchronization of breathing and movement. They involve stretching/twisting movements and relaxation. The key to performing a yoga posture is that it should be performed with stability and comfort. Seated postures such as ardhamatsyendrasan, yoga mudra, and mandukasan improve pancreatic function. Asanas with forward bends massage and pressurize the pancreas and stimulate the secretion of insulin. Twisting poses, such as vakrasan and ardhamatsyendrasan (seated spinal twist) squeeze the intestines and massage them to prevent the stagnation of colonic contents. For therapeutic benefits, the poses need to be maintained for approximately 30 seconds to 1 minute, depending on individual capacity, and the duration may be gradually increased. A study showed that yoga postures had a positive effect on glucose utilization and fat redistribution in individuals with type 2 diabetes [11]. In patients with diabetes, pancreatic cells may be rejuvenated and pancreatic β-cell sensitivity may be increased by the alternating abdominal contractions and relaxations involved in yoga practice. Improved blood supply to muscles may enhance insulin receptor expression in the muscles, causing increased glucose uptake [2].
In a study, it was observed that optimum control of diabetes was achieved by practicing dhanurasana and ardhamatsayendrasana. Halasana, vajrasana, bhujangasana, and naukasana were also found to be effective. However, yoga mudra and shalabasana worsened participants' diabetic status, for reasons that are not clearly understood [12].
A study evaluated the effects of four specific sets of asanas, dhanurasana+matsyendrasana, halasana+vajrasana, naukasana+bhujangasana, and setubandhasana+pavanamuktasana, on releasing insulin from the pancreas [13]. Increased sensitivity of the β-cells of the pancreas to the glucose signal was observed, which appeared to be a sustained change resulting from a progressive long-term effect of the asanas.
It was suggested that as little as 10 minutes of the yoga intervention combined with standard medical care could improve metabolic health significantly [14].
Pranayama (yogic breathing)
Pranayama is controlled or regulated yogic breathing practice. The slow breathing technique in pranayama causes comprehensive changes in body physiology by controlling the autonomic nervous system; it regularizes the rate and pattern of breathing and regulates the heart rate and its variability [15].
Slow pranayamas, such as anulom vilom (alternate nostril breathing), chandranadi (left nostril breathing), sitkari (cooling breaths), and bhramari (humming bee breath) augment cerebral blood flow and oxygenation, thereby improving the neuronal activities of the brain centres, including those present in the limbic areas, hypothalamus, and medulla, as well as improving sympathovagal outflow [15]. Anulom vilom pranayama (alternate nostril breathing) has been shown to yield significant improvements in components of health-related fitness (i.e., cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and percentage of body fat) [16]. The vibrations created in bhramari prayanama (humming bee breath) have a soothing and calming effect on the mind and could play a vital role in improving mental and physical health [17]. Right nostril breathing is believed to have a sympathetic stimulating effect and may be recommended in people with diabetes [18]. Bhastrika pranayama (bellow-breathing) is a powerful and energetic pranayama referred to as “the breath of fire.” It helps in the regulation of the pineal, pituitary, and adrenal glands, which play an important role in the regulation of metabolism [19].
Bandha (lock)
Bandha refers to a hold, tightening, or lock. It constricts a certain part of the body and re-directs the flow of blood and lymph to other parts. Asanas or pranayama may be combined with bandhas.
Uddiyan bandha (abdominal lock), which involves creating negative pressure in the abdomen and contracting the abdominal area, may have a therapeutic effect in the management of diabetes. It is believed that the negative pressure created in the abdominal cavity may improve pancreatic function.
Aum/Om chanting
Scientific analyses have shown that chanting “Aum” is based on the physics of sound, vibrations, and resonance, and has a positive influence on health. Chanting the “Aum” mantra results in stabilization of the brain, removal of negative thoughts, and increase of energy, and mental improvements and relaxation of the body take place within minutes of practice [20]. Pranava pranayama (chanting “Aum”) in the supine posture produces an integrated relaxation response, which may have clinical significance in the management of hypertension and diabetes [21].
Evaluation of the immediate effects of the mind-sound resonance technique in people with type 2 diabetes showed its potential role in enhancing cognitive function [22].
Sudarshan kriya
Sudarshan kriya is a specific breathing sequence involving “Aum” chanting, ujjayi pranayama, and bhastrika pranayama with rhythmic, cyclical breathing at slow, medium, and fast paces. In a study, significant improvements in physical, psychological, and social domains and total quality of life in diabetes patients were observed after the practice of sudarshan kriya yoga and pranayama in comparison to a group following standard treatment alone [23].
Dhyan (meditation)
Meditation has been shown to cause physiological changes in the brain. Meditators experience beneficial psychological effects, such as faster reactions to stimuli, and are less prone to various forms of stress [24]. The mental stability attained through the practice of meditation helps diabetes patients. A 6-week meditation and sahaja yoga meditation treatment showed improvements in quality of life, anxiety reduction, and blood pressure control [25]. Visualization and concentration on the pancreas during meditation has positive effects on sugar levels and is recommended in the management of diabetes. Mindfulness practice is advocated for better sleep, greater relaxation, and more accepting approaches to illness and the illness experience in people with diabetes and coronary heart disease [26].
Yogic relaxation technique, yoga nidra (yogic sleep)
Yoga nidra (conscious, dynamic, psychic sleep) is a comprehensive, profound relaxation technique for removing physical, mental, and emotional tensions. Yoga nidra practice in middle-age diabetes patients on oral medications led to improved symptom scores and reductions of fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose levels [27].
Mudras (gestures)
Mudras are a combination of subtle physical movements that alter mood, attitude and perception, and deepen awareness and concentration [28]. Some hasta mudras (hand gestures), such as linga mudra, surya mudra, and prana mudra, are believed to be helpful for diabetes. Regular practice of these mudras boosts metabolic rates, promotes weight loss, and reduces sugar levels. Certain other mudras, such as apan mudra and gyan mudra, are recommended for diabetes patients for deep relaxation and eliminating stress. However, their individual effects have not been evaluated in scientific studies.
The recommended type, duration, and frequency of yoga practice have not been clearly defined, and studies have analysed various frequencies and durations of yoga practice. Durations of yoga practice ranging from 10 minutes [14], 25 to 35 minutes [23], and 60 minutes daily [10], 45- to 60-minute sessions 6 days a week [29], and three sessions of 75 minutes each per week [30], to 90-minute sessions twice weekly [9] have shown beneficial results. Many studies have reported beneficial effects after 3 months of the intervention [910142930], while in a few studies, interventions of 15 days [31], 40 days, and 6 months [23] were evaluated. Adherence to yoga practice was shown to have an impact on its beneficial effects [32].
Precautions and contraindications
Yoga should be learned under the guidance of a qualified yoga professional. There are many different styles of yoga, and while many are safe, some can be strenuous and may not be appropriate for everyone. Fast-paced yoga practice and vigorous exercises in extreme temperature conditions, as in hot or Bikram yoga, are not recommended for individuals with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or who are at risk of complications. A relatively safe yoga style suitable for an individual's requirements should be practised. Beginners should avoid extreme practices. Patients taking medication to control diabetes should carefully monitor their bodies' reactions to any new fitness activity. Overlooking the warning signals of pain and discomfort while performing yoga practice may result in serious injury. Yoga practitioners should never push themselves beyond their physical capacity. Yoga practices are generally recommended on an empty stomach, but those taking treatments for diabetes may take light snacks to prevent hypoglycaemia. Inverted poses such as sarvangasan and sheershasan cause blood to rush or pool into the head and upper body, which may lead to a risk of retinal detachment or bleeding; such poses should be avoided in patients with diabetes or practiced with utmost care, only after an ophthalmic evaluation [33].
Balancing poses should be practiced carefully to avoid traumatic injuries. Yoga poses must be practiced slowly, without any sudden jerky movements and without pushing beyond one's limits. Complications of diabetes, such as autonomic neuropathy, may cause dizziness when sitting or standing abruptly because of a sudden drop in blood pressure. Individuals with diabetes are advised to enter and come out of poses slowly, pausing for a breath or two if required while practicing the pose [34].
Yoga is based on the principle that the mind and body are intimately related. It improves flexibility, muscle strength, blood circulation, and oxygen uptake [23]. Yoga exhibits many health benefits, such as improving physical fitness, relaxation, and awareness of self. Various lifestyle disorders, including diabetes, can be effectively addressed by the practice of yoga, given acceptably high levels of adherence. Yoga practice improves an individual's discipline regarding food and exercise, thereby helping to modify patient-related reluctance that results in the underutilization of exercise as a treatment modality [35].
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that adversely affects quality of life. Psychological stress and negative mood have a bidirectional effect in the control of diabetes [36]. Stress increases the risk and severity of diabetes by stimulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic axes and parasympathetic withdrawal, resulting in increases in the levels of cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, growth hormone, glucagon, catecholamines, prolactin, leptin, and neuropeptide Y [37]. Chronic activation of the HPA axis is associated with poor control of diabetes and complications such as diabetic neuropathy. An increased level of inflammatory cytokines results in insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Chronic psychological stress can result in insulin resistance, hypertension, and an increased risk of cardiovascular events [38]. Yoga effectively reduces stress, thereby helping diabetes control [39]. Yoga practice in healthy volunteers was found to result in increases in wellness; reductions in stress, depression, and anxiety; improvements in the physical, psychological, and social domains and total quality of life; a feeling of balance; and a new outlook on life [25394041]. Yoga practice results in significant improvements in the scores of various psychological assessments, including satisfaction impact and worry [42]. Yoga also results in improvements in physical exercise, behavioural changes, and dietary practices, in addition to its effects on relaxation and stress management [35].
Abdominal stretching during yoga exercises is believed to result in the regeneration of pancreatic cells [2]. The various postures during yoga practice help to improve the sensitivity of β-cells to glucose, thereby improving insulin secretion, and increase the blood supply to the muscle and muscle relaxation, thereby improving glucose uptake. Improvements in hormonal homeostasis also improve glycaemic control in people with diabetes mellitus [43]. Yoga therapy also results in immunomodulation by reducing proinflammatory responses and improving immune function [44].
The various health benefits of yoga therapy are related to changes in the level of various hormones and neurotransmitters: joy and euphoria during yoga therapy are due to an increase in β-endorphin, serotonin, and dopamine levels; improvements in arousal are due to increased arginine-vasopressin levels, which reduce the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibition of the supraoptic area of the hypothalamus; its calming effect is due to melatonin; the ecstatic and blissful feelings that arise during yoga are due to lateral hypothalamic stimulation; and the decrease in spatial orientation and out-of-body experiences during meditation are due to decreased levels of GABA and increased levels of N-acetylaspartylglutamate and 5-methoxydimethyl tryptamine (from pineal enzymes) [45].
Yoga practice is thought to have “beyond the drug action,” which refers to the potential to induce stem cell trafficking from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood, which may lead to tissue regeneration by replacement and recruitment of cells differentiated from the stem cells [46]. However, this mechanism needs to be further explored.
Yoga asana also modulate gene expression and increase muscle activity, strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance, resulting in favourable effects on body weight, adiposity, dyslipidaemia, and insulin resistance [47].
Yoga reduces oxidative stress, as demonstrated by reductions in serum malondialdehyde, interleukin 6, and leptin levels, and improvements in adiponectin levels [4448]. Yoga therapy increases the number of insulin receptors and increases the proportion of receptor binding in patients with diabetes [49]. It improves insulin kinetics by reducing fasting insulin levels, shifting the peak insulin level to the left, and by normalising the insulin-to-glucose ratio [50]. It also reduces levels of free fatty acids, indirectly indicating improved insulin sensitivity or reduced insulin resistance [51]. Yoga and various breathing exercises were found to lead to improvements on lung function tests [52]. Yoga improves cell-mediated immunity, as demonstrated by improvements in the lymphocyte migration test in people with type 2 diabetes [53].
Yoga also prevents the development of diabetes in high-risk individuals [54]. It was found to improve symptom scores in people with diabetes [55]. It also results in reduction of fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, haemoglobin A1c, and anti-diabetic drug requirements, suggesting improved glycaemic control. Yoga therapy results in a reduction in body weight, body mass index, the waist-to-hip ratio, body fat percentage, body fat mass, and skin fold thickness, thereby increasing lean body weight (Fig. 1).
Yoga reduces levels of triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and free fatty acids, and improves high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels [56]. It induces discipline regarding food and exercise [6]. The regular practice of yoga improves exercise tolerance, and it has been shown that yoga improved performance on the treadmill test from eight metabolic equivalents (METS) to 12 METS and resulted in the postponement of the anaerobic threshold [57]. Some studies have shown that there were reductions in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in persons practicing yoga [58].
The regular practice of yoga reduces the risk of diabetes-related complications. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction is believed to be a cause of sudden death in patients with diabetes mellitus. Clinical studies have shown that regular yoga practice improved cardiac autonomic function independently of glycaemic control and reduced the risk of cardiovascular events [59]. Yoga therapy also stabilizes the coagulation profile, thereby improving nerve conduction and cognitive function in patients with diabetes [60].
In patients with type 2 diabetes, improvements in glycaemic control with up-titration of the insulin regimen or anti-diabetic medicines, without diet control or exercise, result in weight gain. In contrast, yoga improves glycaemic control without increasing body weight, and some studies have found it to reduce body weight [14].
The ease of use, safety, and multiple psychological benefits of yoga have led it to be more widely accepted in society, and it can now be considered a low-cost intervention to control various lifestyle disorders, including diabetes [35].
There are many lacunae in the clinical trials conducted to study the effects of yoga on health and various diseases. A lack of proper control groups, small numbers of patients, and short durations of the studies are the major limitations of the clinical trials that have investigated the therapeutic role of yoga in controlling diabetes. Additionally, some of the studies only considered blood sugar levels as outcomes, neglecting the other possible benefits of yoga. Selection bias, influence of confounding factors, lack of appropriate research methodology, inconsistency of the baseline data, and a lack of appropriate statistical analysis all make the interpretation of studies on yoga difficult [61].
We can improve yoga research studies by improving the methodology of studies, reducing bias, studying long-term adherence to yoga practice (including home practice) to assess the long-term benefits of yoga, and analysing particular components of yoga therapy in order to obtain a clearer idea about particular types of yoga and the benefits thereof.
Yoga therapy is relevant for wellness, as well as for illness. The latest scientific evidence suggests the potential role of yoga-based lifestyle modifications in the management of type 2 diabetes and its associated risk factors. It is suggested that psychoneuro-endocrine and immune mechanisms have holistic effects in diabetes control. Parasympathetic activation and the associated anti-stress mechanisms improve patients' overall metabolic and psychological profiles, increase insulin sensitivity, and improve glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism. Yoga practices such as cleansing processes, asanas, pranayama, mudras, bandha, meditation, mindfulness, and relaxation are known to reduce blood glucose levels and to help in the management of comorbid disease conditions associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, resulting in significant positive clinical outcomes.

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

  • 1. International Diabetes Federation. Chapter 3, The global picture. IDF Diabetes Atlas; 8th ed. Brussels: International Diabetes Federation; 2017. p. 40–59.
  • 2. Thangasami SR, Chandani AL, Thangasami S. Emphasis of yoga in the management of diabetes. J Diabetes Metab 2015;6:613.Article
  • 3. Liu XC, Pan L, Hu Q, Dong WP, Yan JH, Dong L. Effects of yoga training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Thorac Dis 2014;6:795–802. PubMedPMC
  • 4. Jyotsna VP. Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus: evidence for effect of yoga. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2014;18:745–749. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 5. Youngwanichsetha S, Phumdoung S, Ingkathawornwong T. The effects of mindfulness eating and yoga exercise on blood sugar levels of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Appl Nurs Res 2014;27:227–230. ArticlePubMed
  • 6. Miller CK, Kristeller JL, Headings A, Nagaraja H, Miser WF. Comparative effectiveness of a mindful eating intervention to a diabetes self-management intervention among adults with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study. J Acad Nutr Diet 2012;112:1835–1842. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 7. Jindal N, Joshi NP. Comparative study of Vamana and Virechanakarma in controlling blood sugar levels in diabetes mellitus. Ayu 2013;34:263–269. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 8. Shalinee , Mishra D, Kamal K, Gupta AK, Sharma KK. Shankhaprakshalana: a yogic karma for purification. Int J Ayurvedic Herb Med 2012;2:578–581.
  • 9. Skoro-Kondza L, Tai SS, Gadelrab R, Drincevic D, Greenhalgh T. Community based yoga classes for type 2 diabetes: an exploratory randomised controlled trial. BMC Health Serv Res 2009;9:33ArticlePubMedPMCPDF
  • 10. Sreedevi A, Gopalakrishnan UA, Karimassery Ramaiyer S, Kamalamma L. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of yoga and peer support on glycaemic outcomes in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a feasibility study. BMC Complement Altern Med 2017;17:100ArticlePubMedPMCPDF
  • 11. Malhotra V, Singh S, Tandon OP, Sharma SB. The beneficial effect of yoga in diabetes. Nepal Med Coll J 2005;7:145–147. PubMed
  • 12. Madhavi S, Raju PS, Reddy MV, Annapurna N, Sahay BK, Kumari DG, et al. Effect of yogic exercises on lean body mass. J Assoc Physicians India 1985;33:465–466. PubMed
  • 13. Manjunatha S, Vempati RP, Ghosh D, Bijlani RL. An investigation into the acute and long-term effects of selected yogic postures on fasting and postprandial glycemia and insulinemia in healthy young subjects. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2005;49:319–324. PubMed
  • 14. Mullur RS, Ames D. Impact of a 10 minute seated yoga practice in the management of diabetes. J Yoga Phys Ther 2016;6:1000224. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 15. Pal GK. Effects of pranayama on cardiovascular health. Int J Clin Exp Physiol 2016;3:57–58.Article
  • 16. Bal BS. Effects of short term practice of Anuloma Viloma Pranayama on components of health-related fitness. Educ Prac Innov 2015;2:10–18.Article
  • 17. Srivastava S, Goyal P, Tiwari SK, Patel AK. Interventional effect of Bhramari Pranayama on mental health among college students. Int J Ind Psychol 2017;4:29–33.
  • 18. Nivethitha L, Mooventhan A, Manjunath NK. Effects of various PraXMLLink_XYZayama on cardiovascular and autonomic variables. Anc Sci Life 2016;36:72–77. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 19. Singh RB, Wilczynska-Kwiatek A, Fedacko J, Pella D, De Meester F. Pranayama: the power of breath. Int J Disabil Hum Dev 2009;8:141–153.ArticlePDF
  • 20. Gurjar AA, Ladhake SA, Thakare AP. Analysis of acoustic of “OM” chant to study it's effect on nervous system. Int J Comput Sci Netw Secur 2009;9:363–367.
  • 21. Bhavanani AB, Madanmohan , Sanjay Z, Vithiyalakshmi SL. Immediate cardiovascular effects of pranava relaxation in patients with hypertension and diabetes. Biomed Hum Kinet 2012;4:66–69.ArticlePDF
  • 22. Mohanty S, Metri K, Nagaratna R, Nagendra HR. Immediate effect of mind sound resonance technique (MSRT-A yogic relaxation technique) on cognitive functions in type 2 diabetes. Voice Res 2015;4:44–45.
  • 23. Jyotsna VP, Joshi A, Ambekar S, Kumar N, Dhawan A, Sreenivas V. Comprehensive yogic breathing program improves quality of life in patients with diabetes. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2012;16:423–428. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 24. Ricard M, Lutz A, Davidson RJ. Mind of the meditator. Sci Am 2014;311:38–45.Article
  • 25. Chung SC, Brooks MM, Rai M, Balk JL, Rai S. Effect of Sahaja yoga meditation on quality of life, anxiety, and blood pressure control. J Altern Complement Med 2012;18:589–596. ArticlePubMed
  • 26. Keyworth C, Knopp J, Roughley K, Dickens C, Bold S, Coventry P. A mixed-methods pilot study of the acceptability and effectiveness of a brief meditation and mindfulness intervention for people with diabetes and coronary heart disease. Behav Med 2014;40:53–64. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 27. Amita S, Prabhakar S, Manoj I, Harminder S, Pavan T. Effect of yoga-nidra on blood glucose level in diabetic patients. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2009;53:97–101. PubMed
  • 28. Singh K. Hasta Mudra's and respiratory system. Int J Phys Educ Sports Health 2015;1:83–86.
  • 29. Vaishali K, Kumar KV, Adhikari P, UnniKrishnan B. Effects of yoga-based program on glycosylated hemoglobin level serum lipid profile in community dwelling elderly subjects with chronic type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. Phys Occup Ther Geriatr 2012;30:22–30.Article
  • 30. Habibi N, Farsani ZH, Yazdani B, Arianshakib R, Noruozi P. The influence of yoga-on risk profiles programs in women with diabetes type II. Adv Environ Biol 2013;2013:550–556.
  • 31. Subramaniyan TG, Subramaniyan N, Chidambaram M. Brisk walking and yoga as adjuvant therapy in management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Student Res 2012;2:43–46.Article
  • 32. Angadi P, Jagannathan A, Thulasi A, Kumar V, Umamaheshwar K, Raghuram N. Adherence to yoga and its resultant effects on blood glucose in type 2 diabetes: a community-based follow-up study. Int J Yoga 2017;10:29–36. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 33. Shah NJ, Shah UN. Central retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana (headstand posture). Indian J Ophthalmol 2009;57:69–70. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 34. Innes KE, Vincent HK. The influence of yoga-based programs on risk profiles in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2007;4:469–486. ArticlePubMedPDF
  • 35. Aswathy S, Unnikrishnan AG, Kalra S. Effective management of type 2 DM in India: looking at low-cost adjunctive therapy. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2013;17:149–152. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 36. Bystritsky A, Danial J, Kronemyer D. Interactions between diabetes and anxiety and depression: implications for treatment. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2014;43:269–283. ArticlePubMed
  • 37. Mahajan AS. Role of yoga in hormonal homeostasis. Int J Clin Exp Physiol 2014;1:173–178.Article
  • 38. Innes KE, Bourguignon C, Taylor AG. Risk indices associated with the insulin resistance syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and possible protection with yoga: a systematic review. J Am Board Fam Pract 2005;18:491–519. ArticlePubMed
  • 39. Kosuri M, Sridhar GR. Yoga practice in diabetes improves physical and psychological outcomes. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2009;7:515–517. ArticlePubMed
  • 40. Brown RP, Gerbarg PL. Sudarshan Kriya yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression. Part II: clinical applications and guidelines. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11:711–717. ArticlePubMed
  • 41. Gangadhar BN, Naveen GH, Rao MG, Thirthalli J, Varambally S. Positive antidepressant effects of generic yoga in depressive out-patients: a comparative study. Indian J Psychiatry 2013;55(Suppl 3):S369–S373. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 42. Agrawal RP, Aradhana SH, Beniwal R, Sabir M, Kochar DK. Influence of yogic treatment on quality of life outcomes, glycaemic control and risk factors in diabetes mellitus. Int J Diab Dev Countries 2003;23:130–134.
  • 43. Ross A, Thomas S. The health benefits of yoga and exercise: a review of comparison studies. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16:3–12. ArticlePubMed
  • 44. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Christian LM, Andridge R, Hwang BS, Malarkey WB, Belury MA, et al. Adiponectin, leptin, and yoga practice. Physiol Behav 2012;107:809–813. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 45. Newberg AB, Iversen J. The neural basis of the complex mental task of meditation: neurotransmitter and neurochemical considerations. Med Hypotheses 2003;61:282–291. ArticlePubMed
  • 46. Shree N, Bhonde RR. Can yoga therapy stimulate stem cell trafficking from bone marrow? J Ayurveda Integr Med 2016;7:181–184. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 47. Dusek JA, Otu HH, Wohlhueter AL, Bhasin M, Zerbini LF, Joseph MG, et al. Genomic counter-stress changes induced by the relaxation response. PLoS One 2008;3:e2576. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 48. Hegde SV, Adhikari P, Kotian S, Pinto VJ, D'Souza S, D'Souza V. Effect of 3-month yoga on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes with or without complications: a controlled clinical trial. Diabetes Care 2011;34:2208–2210. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 49. Gordon L, Morrison EY, McGrowder D, Penas YF, Zamoraz EM, Garwood D, et al. Effect of yoga and traditional physical exercise on hormones and percentage insulin binding receptor in patients with type 2 diabetes. Am J Biochem Biotechnol 2008;4:35–42.ArticlePDF
  • 50. Sahay BK. Yoga and diabetes. J Assoc Physicians India 1986;34:645–648. PubMed
  • 51. Bhaskaracharyulu C, Raju PS, Madhavi S. The effect of yoga on lipoprotein profile in diabetics. J Diabet Assoc India 1986;XXVI:120–122.
  • 52. Sahay BK. Role of yoga in diabetes. J Assoc Physicians India 2007;55:121–126. PubMed
  • 53. Kapur A. Proceedings of novo nordisk diabetes update. Yoga and diabetes; Bombay: Health Care Communications; 1994. p. 159–167.
  • 54. McDermott KA, Rao MR, Nagarathna R, Murphy EJ, Burke A, Nagendra RH, et al. A yoga intervention for type 2 diabetes risk reduction: a pilot randomized controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2014;14:212ArticlePubMedPMCPDF
  • 55. Vaibhavi B, Satyam T, Sanjibkumar P, Raghuram N, Ramarao NH. Effect of holistic module of yoga and Ayurvedic Panchakarma in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study. Open J Endocr Metab Dis 2013;3:90–98.Article
  • 56. Cui J, Yan JH, Yan LM, Pan L, Le JJ, Guo YZ. Effects of yoga in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. J Diabetes Investig 2017;8:201–209.ArticlePubMed
  • 57. Sahay BK, Murthy KJR, Raju PS, Madhavi S. Effect of yogic practices on exercises tolerance in diabetes. Diabetes 1991;40(Suppl 1):398.
  • 58. Hagins M, States R, Selfe T, Innes K. Effectiveness of yoga for hypertension: systematic review and meta-analysis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;2013:649836. ArticlePubMedPMCPDF
  • 59. Cramer H, Lauche R, Haller H, Steckhan N, Michalsen A, Dobos G. Effects of yoga on cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol 2014;173:170–183. ArticlePubMed
  • 60. Chohan IS, Nayar HS, Thomas P, Geetha NS. Influence of yoga on blood coagulation. Thromb Haemost 1984;51:196–197. ArticlePubMedPDF
  • 61. Patwardhan AR. Yoga research and public health: is research aligned with the stakeholders' needs? J Prim Care Community Health 2016 8 11 [Epub]. Article
Fig. 1

Showing the mechanisms of benefits of yoga practice in type 2 diabetes. BP, blood pressure; HPA, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal; GH, growth hormone.

Table 1

Some Yoga Practices Beneficial for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Yoga technique Approximate duration and remarks
Cleansing practices: shuddhi kriya
Kapalbhati (frontal brain purification) 5 rounds, 120 strokes
Agnisar kriya (stimulating the digestive fire) 5 rounds
Vaman dhauti (stomach cleansing) Once a week
Full shankhaprakshalana (intestine cleansing) Once a year
Laghu shankhaprakshalana (short cleansing) Every 40 days
Preparatory practices/warming up 5–10 minutes
Surya namaskar Slow speed, 3–7 rounds according to an individual's capacity
Yoga postures: asanas
 Standing postures
  Trikonasan (triangle pose) Recommended to hold the final pose for 15 seconds, gradually increasing the duration up to 1 minute
  Tadasan (palm tree pose)
  Tiryak tadasan (bent palm tree pose)
  Veerasan (warrior pose)
 Seated poses
  Vakrasan (spinal twist) Recommended to hold the final pose for 15 seconds, gradually increasing the duration up to 1 minute
  Ardhamatsyendrasan (seated spinal twist)
  Mandukasan (frog pose)
  Ushtrasan (camel pose)
  Paschimottanasan (seated forward bend)
  Yoga mudra (forward bend)
 Prone poses
  Bhujangasan (cobra pose) Recommended to hold the final pose for 15 seconds, gradually increasing the duration up to 1 minute
  Dhanurasan (bow pose)
  Naukasan (boat pose)
  Makarasan (crocodile pose) Relaxation pose: 2–5 minutes as needed
 Supine poses
  Pavanmuktasan (wind releasing pose) Recommended to hold the final pose for 15 seconds, gradually increasing the duration up to 1 minute
  Supta vajrasana (supine thunderbolt pose)
  Setubandhasan (bridge pose)
  Matsyasan (fish pose)
  Shavasan (corpse pose) Relaxation pose: 2–5 minutes as needed
  Sarvangasan (shoulder stand) Hold the final pose for 15 seconds, gradually increasing the duration up to 1 minute
  Halasan (plough pose)
Regulated breathing practices: pranayama
Anulom vilom (alternate nostril breathing) 5–10 minutes
Chandra bhedan (left nostril breathing) 5 minutes
Surya bhedan (right nostril breathing) 5 minutes
Bhastrika (bellows breath) 3–5 minutes
Bhramari (humming bee breath) 5 rounds
Sheetali/Sitkari (cooling breath) 3–5 minutes
Lock: bandha
Uddiyan bandha (abdominal lock) 5 rounds
Hand gestures: mudras
Linga mudra, surya mudra, prana mudra, apan mudra, gyan mudra 15–45 minutes
Meditation 10 minutes or more
 Meditation on manipur chakra (solar plexus) 10 minutes
“Aum” chanting 5 minutes
Yogic relaxation: yoga nidra 30 minutes
Table 2

Some of the Beneficial Effects of Yoga Practices on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Yoga practice Effects
Surya namaskar sun salutation Stimulates insulin production through brain signalling [8]
 A series of dynamic yoga postures in a specific sequence Significantly decreases hip circumference, exerting beneficial effects on glycaemic outcomes [10]
Yoga asana (yoga postures) Rejuvenates of pancreatic cells through the alternating abdominal contractions and
relaxations involved in yoga practice
Improves blood supply to muscles
Enhances insulin receptor expression in the muscles, causing increased glucose
uptake by muscles [2]
Has positive effects on glucose utilization and fat redistribution in type 2 diabetes [11]
 Forward bend Massages and pressurizes the pancreas, stimulating insulin secretion
 Backward bend Exerts stimulating and energizing effects
 Twisted poses Squeeze the intestines to prevent stagnation of colonic contents
 Inversions Improve blood circulation
Shuddhi kriya cleansing processes
Kapalbhati (frontal brain purification): breathing technique with forceful exhalations and automatic inhalations Abdominal pressure created during exhalation improves the efficiency of β-cells of the pancreas
Helps in the production of insulin and controlling glucose levels in the blood
Agnisar kriya (stimulating the digestive fire): pulling the abdomen in (uddiyan bandha) and snapping it backwards and forwards while holding one's breath The ‘vacuum’ effect of this action massages the internal organs and increase blood flow to the area
Boosts metabolism and facilitates proper functioning of the abdominal organs [11]
Vaman dhauti (stomach cleansing with induced vomiting) Increases glucose uptake, minimizes insulin resistance, and promotes the function of insulin by reducing levels of circulating free fatty acids in the body
Marked reduction in fasting and post-prandial blood sugar levels
Shankhaprakshalana (intestine cleansing) Significantly reduces blood glucose levels
Increases insulin production [8]
Pranayama (regulated breathing)
 Slow pranayama, anulom vilom, chandrabhedan, sitkari, and bhramari Augment cerebral blood flow and oxygenation, improving neuronal activities in the brain centres, including those present in the limbic areas, hypothalamus, and medulla, and improve sympathovagal outflow [15]
Anulom vilom (alternate nostril breathing) Improves components of health-related fitness, i.e., cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and body fat percentage [16]
Bhramari (humming bee breath) Soothing and calming effect on the mind, improves mental and physical health [17]
Sheetali/Sitkari (cooling breath) Lowers blood pressure, cooling effect
Chandra bhedan (left nostril breathing) Parasympathetic stimulation
Surya bhedan (right nostril breathing) Sympathetic stimulating effect; may be recommended in people with diabetes [18]
Bhastrika (bellows breath) Regulation of pineal, pituitary, and adrenaline glands, important role in the regulation of metabolism [19]
Bandha (lock)
 Constricts a certain part of the body Re-directs the flow of blood and lymph to other body parts
Uddiyan bandha (abdominal lock): creation of negative pressure in abdomen and contraction of abdomen Negative pressure created in the abdominal cavity may improve pancreatic function
Hasta mudras (hand gestures)
Apan mudra, gyan mudra Promote deep relaxation and eliminate stress
Linga mudra, surya mudra, prana mudra Boost metabolic rates, promote weight loss, and reduce sugar levels
Dhyan (meditation) Beneficial psychological effects, such as faster reactions to stimuli and being less prone to various forms of stress [24], anxiety reduction, and blood pressure control [25]
 Meditation on the manipur chakra (solar plexus), visualization of pancreas during meditation Positive effects on sugar levels
Mindfulness Better sleep, greater relaxation, more accepting approaches to illness and the illness experience in people with diabetes and coronary heart disease [26]
Aum” chanting Stabilizes the brain, removes negative thoughts, increases energy, improves mind and body relaxation within minutes of practice [20]
Chanting in the supine posture produces an integrated relaxation response [21]
Yoga nidra (yogic relaxation) Improved symptom score, reduction of fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose levels [27]

Figure & Data



    Citations to this article as recorded by  
    • Clinical Practice Guidelines for mental health and well-being in patients with chronic medical illnesses
      Sandeep Grover, Ajit Avasthi, Abdul Majid
      Indian Journal of Psychiatry.2024; 66(Suppl 2): S338.     CrossRef
    • Complementary and alternative system of medicine for type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications: A scoping review
      Shradha S Parsekar, Nachiket Gudi, Sujata Chodankar Walke, Prabhu Dutta Shaw, Aditi Hombali, Anupama V Nayak, Basavaraj S Hadapad
      F1000Research.2024; 11: 526.     CrossRef
      Jyoti Prajapati, Pramod Kumar Mishra, Brahmanand Sharma
      International Ayurvedic Medical Journal.2024; 12(02): 346.     CrossRef
    • Therapeutic role of yoga in hypertension
      Anjali Mangesh Joshi, Arkiath Veettil Raveendran, Muruganathan Arumugam
      World Journal of Methodology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The effect of yoga practices on health parameters: A review
      Gökhan Çetinoğlu, Emirhan Pehlivan
      Turkish Journal of Kinesiology.2024; 10(1): 41.     CrossRef
    • Managing Diabetic Complications with Alternative Therapeutic Strategies
      Shobhit Prakash Srivastava, Pawan Upadhyay, Shibu Das, Neha Tiwari, Sudhanshu Mishra, Shivendra Mani Tripathi
      Current Diabetes Reviews.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Novel Approaches to Control Diabetes
      Malissa Mathew Dmello, Geeta Bhagwat
      Current Diabetes Reviews.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • A Study on Yoga-Based Lifestyle Intervention versus Dietary Intervention Alone on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among People with Prediabetes
      Neha Saboo, Sudhanshu Kacker
      Annals of African Medicine.2024; 23(2): 202.     CrossRef
    • Yoga and its effect on sperm genomic integrity, gene expression, telomere length and perceived quality of life in early pregnancy loss
      Vidhu Dhawan, Neena Malhotra, Neeta Singh, Vatsla Dadhwal, Rima Dada
      Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Harmony in Health: A Narrative Review Exploring the Interplay of Mind, Body, and Diabetes with a Special Emphasis on Emotional Stress
      Jayakrishnan Balakrishnanpillai, Jothydev Kesavadev, Banshi Saboo
      Journal of Diabetology.2024; 15(2): 123.     CrossRef
    • A self-management plus mind body intervention for adolescents and young adults with type 2 diabetes: Trial design and methodological report
      Molly McVoy, David Miller, Irina Bransteter, Rose Gubitosi-Klug, Tracy Segal, Jessica Surdam, Martha Sajatovic, Jeffery A. Dusek
      Contemporary Clinical Trials.2023; 133: 107317.     CrossRef
    • Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and treatment utilization patterns among the elderly from the first wave of Longitudinal Aging study in India (2017-18)using a Heckman selection model
      Papai Barman, Milan Das, Madhur Verma
      BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Is Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus a Behavioural Disorder? An Evidence Review for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prevention and Remission through Lifestyle Modification
      Matthias Li, Mohammad Sadiq Jeeyavudeen, Ganesan Arunagirinathan, Joseph Pappachan
      European Endocrinology.2023; 19(1): 7.     CrossRef
    • Yoga practice can reduce metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk in climacteric women
      Laura Alves Cota e Souza, Thiago Magalhães Gouvea, Francielle Caroline Fernandes, Maria Ruth Gonçalves Gaede Carrillo, Vanja Maria Veloso, Ariosvaldo Figueiredo Santos Filho, Angélica Alves Lima
      Journal of Behavioral Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Yogic practices for dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review of randomized-controlled trials
      Bandana Sairem, Khushbu Jain
      BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences.2023; 8(1): 20.     CrossRef
    • Effect of yoga protocol in primary snoring: A pilot study
      JojanJ Jerone, Ashok Patil, SavitaS Angadi, AmalS Chandran
      Journal of Ayurveda.2023; 17(2): 114.     CrossRef
    • Effects of different mind-body exercises on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes: A network meta-analysis
      Sijun Wu, Lin Wang, Yuxuan He, Fengrui Shi, Huiqi Zhuang, Linqi Mei, Youling Qian
      Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice.2023; 53: 101802.     CrossRef
    • Mechanisms of improved body composition among perimenopausal women practicing Meditative Movement: a proposed biobehavioral model
      Dara L. James, Linda K. Larkey, Bronwynne Evans, Ann Sebren, Kimberley Goldsmith, Erica Ahlich, Nanako A. Hawley, Afton Kechter, Dorothy D. Sears
      Menopause.2023; 30(11): 1114.     CrossRef
    • A comparative analysis of Vamana and Shamana Chikitsa in prediabetes management: A randomized clinical trial
      Uttamram Yadav, Santosh Kumar Bhatted
      Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine.2023; 14(5): 100764.     CrossRef
    • Siddha Therapeutic Approach to Diabetic Nephropathy – A Review
      P. Parvathy, G. S. Lekha, S. Aparna, A. Kanagarajan
      Journal of Natural Remedies.2023; : 1359.     CrossRef
    • Enhancing Type 2 Diabetes Management: Exploring the Synergistic Impact of Vestibular Exercise and Yoga
      Athira MS, Sheela Joice P P, Mohan Varughese, Suresh Babu Sayana
      Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Dynamic In Silico Model of Type 2 Diabetes Treated With Metformin Combined With Exercise: A Sobol Sensitivity Analysis
      Darshna M. Joshi
      Avicenna Journal of Pharmaceutical Research.2023; 3(2): 91.     CrossRef
    • Complementary and alternative system of medicine for type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications: A scoping review
      Shradha S Parsekar, Nachiket Gudi, Sujata Chodankar Walke, Prabhu Dutta Shaw, Aditi Hombali, Anupama V Nayak, Basavaraj S Hadapad
      F1000Research.2023; 11: 526.     CrossRef
    • Exploring the Impact of Combined Thai Yoga and Elastic Band Exercise on Physical Fitness and Exercise Capacity in Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
      Nattha Muangritdech, Tichanon Promsrisuk, Ratchaniporn Kongsui, Napatr Sriraksa, Sitthisak Thongrong, Arunrat Srithawong
      Physical Education Theory and Methodology.2023; 23(6): 894.     CrossRef
    • Role of Yoga and Its Plausible Mechanism in the Mitigation of DNA Damage in Type-2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial
      Rajesh G Nair, Mithila M Vasudev, Ramesh Mavathur
      Annals of Behavioral Medicine.2022; 56(3): 235.     CrossRef
    • Efficacy of Integrated Ayurveda treatment protocol in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus – A case report
      Suketha Kumari, Laxmikant S.D, Sonika B, Suman Khanal
      Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine.2022; 13(1): 100512.     CrossRef
    • Role of structured exercise therapy on cognitive markers and stress parameters in young patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus
      Harpreet Kour, VA Kothiwale, ShivaprasadS Goudar
      Indian Journal of Health Sciences and Biomedical Research (KLEU).2022; 15(1): 70.     CrossRef
    • The Influence of Amateur Sports on Health Quality
      M. M. Vovchenko
      Ukraïnsʹkij žurnal medicini, bìologìï ta sportu.2022; 7(1): 8.     CrossRef
    • Complementary and alternative system of medicine for type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications: A scoping review
      Shradha S Parsekar, Nachiket Gudi, Sujata Chodankar Walke, Prabhu Dutta Shaw, Aditi Hombali, Anupama V Nayak, Basavaraj S Hadapad
      F1000Research.2022; 11: 526.     CrossRef
    • Neuroimaging perspective in targeted treatment for type 2 diabetes melitus and sleep disorders
      Karen M. von Deneen, Malgorzata A. Garstka
      Intelligent Medicine.2022; 2(4): 209.     CrossRef
    • Efficacy of yoga practices on emotion regulation and mindfulness in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients
      Amit Kanthi, Singh Deepeshwar, Chidananda Kaligal, Mahadevappa Vidyashree, Dwivedi Krishna
      Yoga Mimamsa.2022; 54(1): 12.     CrossRef
    • Inside the diabetic brain: Insulin resistance and molecular mechanism associated with cognitive impairment and its possible therapeutic strategies
      Bhaskar Jyoti Dutta, Shamsher Singh, Sanket Seksaria, Ghanshyam Das Gupta, Amrita Singh
      Pharmacological Research.2022; 182: 106358.     CrossRef
      Deepika Khatri, Yuliya Tyravska
      InterConf.2022; (15(117)): 215.     CrossRef
    • An Observational Study on the Effect of Yoga and Sudarshan Kriya in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
      Meenakshi R Verma, Deepakkumar G Langade, Rahul D Rao, Shreya Shivangi, Sonali Khedkar, Divya Kanchibhotla
      Cureus.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The most effective exercise to prevent obesity: A longitudinal study of 33,731 Taiwan biobank participants
      Wan-Yu Lin
      Frontiers in Nutrition.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Type 2 diabetes mellitus, its impact on quality of life and how the disease can be managed-a review
      Priyanka Garg, Navneet Duggal
      Obesity Medicine.2022; 35: 100459.     CrossRef
    • Effect of om chanting and yoga nidra on blood pressure and lipid profile in hypertension – A randomized controlled trial
      K. Anjana, R. Archana, J.K. Mukkadan
      Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine.2022; 13(4): 100657.     CrossRef
    • Effect of yoga intervention on skeletal muscle linked glucose homeostasis in pre-diabetic individuals: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
      Supriya Bhalerao, Jayshree Kharche, Shubhangi Harke
      Advances in Integrative Medicine.2022; 9(4): 230.     CrossRef
    • Popular Complementary and Alternative Therapy Methods in Different Conditions
      Akın SÜZER, Nevriye ÜNAL SÜZER, Raziye ŞAVKIN, Nihal BÜKER
      International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research.2022; 3(3): 201.     CrossRef
    • Add on Hypoglycemic effect of customized Yoga module in diabetes mellitus: A case report
      KK Resmi, MB Kavita, Gurubasavaraj Yalagachin
      Journal of Ayurveda Case Reports.2022; 5(4): 163.     CrossRef
    • Modern Postural Yoga and the Health-Spirituality-Neoliberalism Nexus
      Matteo Di Placido, Anna Strhan, Stefania Palmisano
      Fieldwork in Religion.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Metabolic syndrome and possible treatments (consecutive therapies): a literature review
      Jitender Sorout, Sudhanshu Kacker, Neha Saboo
      INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine).2022; 18(6): 351.     CrossRef
    • Umbilical Cord-Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Conditioned Medium Improves Insulin Resistance in C2C12 Cell
      Kyung-Soo Kim, Yeon Kyung Choi, Mi Jin Kim, Jung Wook Hwang, Kyunghoon Min, Sang Youn Jung, Soo-Kyung Kim, Yong-Soo Choi, Yong-Wook Cho
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(2): 260.     CrossRef
    • Yoga as a complementary therapy for metabolic syndrome: A narrative review
      Dastan M. Khoshnaw, Abhijit A. Ghadge
      Journal of Integrative Medicine.2021; 19(1): 6.     CrossRef
    • Effect of yoga on glycemia and lipid parameters in type-2 diabetes: a meta-analysis
      Deep Dutta, Saptarshi Bhattacharya, Meha Sharma, Deepak Khandelwal, Vineet Surana, Sanjay Kalra
      Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders.2021; 20(1): 349.     CrossRef
    • Effect of Yoga on Glucose Control and Quality of Life in Patients of Prediabetes
      Rajesh Rajput, Karamvir Yadav, Meena Rajput, Jyoti Yadav, Neharika Saini
      Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders.2021; 19(8): 417.     CrossRef
    • Effect of long-term Yogic practices in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a single case study
      KetakiH Patil, Vidya Wasnik (Thatere), VijayG Patrikar
      Journal of Indian System of Medicine.2021; 9(2): 135.     CrossRef
    • Effectiveness of Yoga Lifestyle on Lipid Metabolism in a Vulnerable Population—A Community Based Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial
      Raghuram Nagarathna, Saurabh Kumar, Akshay Anand, Ishwara N. Acharya, Amit Kumar Singh, Suchitra S. Patil, Ramesh H Latha, Purnima Datey, Hongasandra Ramarao Nagendra
      Medicines.2021; 8(7): 37.     CrossRef
    • Yoga for Healthy Aging: Science or Hype?

      Advances in Geriatric Medicine and Research.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • A Prospective Study on Type-2 Diabetic Complications and Efficacy of Integrated Yoga: A Pan India 2017
      Suchitra S. Patil, Nagarathna Raghuram, Amit Singh, S. K. Rajesh, Sabzar Ahmed, Nagendra Hongasandra
      Annals of Neurosciences.2021; 28(1-2): 21.     CrossRef
    • Effects of Yoga Therapy and Walking Therapy in Reducing Blood Sugar Levels on Diabetes Mellitus Patients in the Community
      Wachidah Yuniartika, Agus Sudaryanto, Abi Muhlisin, Dian Hudiyawati, Dimas Ria Angga Pribadi
      Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences.2021; 9(E): 906.     CrossRef
    • Yoga nidra practice shows improvement in sleep in patients with chronic insomnia: A randomized controlled trial
      The National Medical Journal of India.2021; 34: 143.     CrossRef
      Prajakta D. Nimje, Vidya Wasnik (Thatere), Sumeeta Jain
      International Ayurvedic Medical Journal.2021; 9(10): 2619.     CrossRef
    • Efficacy of palliative herbal decoction (Darvyadi Kwatha) with lifestyle modification in the management of prediabetes (Prameha): a single-arm clinical trial
      Uttamram Yadav, SantoshK Bhatted
      Journal of Indian System of Medicine.2021; 9(4): 265.     CrossRef
    • Role of yoga as an adjuvant therapy in the management of metabolic syndrome – A randomized control pilot study
      Rajasekaran Balaji, Meena Ramanathan, AnandaBalayogi Bhavanani
      Yoga Mimamsa.2021; 53(2): 116.     CrossRef
    • Effect of an 8-Week Yoga-Based Lifestyle Intervention on Psycho-Neuro-Immune Axis, Disease Activity, and Perceived Quality of Life in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial
      Surabhi Gautam, Manoj Kumar, Uma Kumar, Rima Dada
      Frontiers in Psychology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Type 2 diabetes mellitus: pathogenesis and genetic diagnosis
      D. Himanshu, Wahid Ali, Mohd Wamique
      Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders.2020; 19(2): 1959.     CrossRef
    • Prevalence and Awareness of Stroke and Other Comorbidities Associated with Diabetes in Northwest India
      Vivek Podder, Vinod Srivastava, Saurabh Kumar, Raghuram Nagarathna, Madhava Sai Sivapuram, Navneet Kaur, Kanupriya Sharma, Amit Kumar Singh, Neeru Malik, Akshay Anand, Hongasandra R. Nagendra
      Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice.2020; 11: 467.     CrossRef
    • Patterns of concomitant use of Ayurveda and conventional anti-diabetic formulations - Experiences at a tertiary care Ayurveda hospital, India
      R Galib, Poonam Dang, Vijay Kumar, Rakesh Rana, Pramod Yadav, PK Prajapati
      AYU (An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda).2020; 41(2): 72.     CrossRef
    • A perspective on yoga as a preventive strategy for coronavirus disease 2019
      R Nagarathna, HR Nagendra, Vijaya Majumdar
      International Journal of Yoga.2020; 13(2): 89.     CrossRef
    • Effect of Ayurveda intervention, lifestyle modification and Yoga in prediabetic and type 2 diabetes under the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS)–AYUSH integration project
      Ramavtar Sharma, VinodKumar Shahi, Shruti Khanduri, Arun Goyal, Suhas Chaudhary, RakeshKumar Rana, Richa Singhal, Narayanam Srikanth, KartarSingh Dhiman
      AYU (An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda).2019; 40(1): 8.     CrossRef
    • Type 2 diabetes mellitus, physical activity, yoga and telomere length: A literature review
      Reepa A. Ughreja, Reena A. Ughreja
      Journal of Metabolic Health.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef

    Related articles

    Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism