Journal of Korean Endocrine Society 2003;18(4):360-370.
Published online August 1, 2003.
Analysis of Ret Proto-oncogene Mutation in Korean Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinomas.
Hyung Hoon Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Yun Jae Chung, Yong Ki Min, Myung Shik Lee, Moon Kyu Lee, Kwang Won Kim, Chang Seok Ki, Jong Won Kim, Jae Hoon Chung
1Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) have been reported as hereditary in about 25 ~30% of cases. The identification of germline mutation in RET proto-oncogene is important in the diagnosis of hereditary MTC, and occurs in three forms: MEN 2A, MEN 2B and familial MTC (FMTC). To evaluate the prevalence of the relationship of RET proto-oncogene mutation and genotype-phenotype was studied in Korean patients with MTC. METHODS: Genomic DNA was obtained from 29 patients, with MTC, who underwent a total thyroidectomy, between 1997 and 2003, at the Samsung Medical Center. There were 7 male and 22 female patients, with an average age of 39, ranging from 20 to 60 years. Exon 10, 11, 13, 14 and 16 of the RET proto-oncogene were amplified, with specific primers, using PCR. A sequencing analysis was performed on the PCR product using an automatic sequencing analyzer. RESULTS: Nine of the 29 patients (31%) were identified as having RET mutations. The average age of these 9 patients was 33 years, ranging from 20 to 51, with a female to male ratio of 2. Five patients had MEN 2A and one had FMTC, with the other 3 thought to have non-hereditary (sporadic) MTC. The 4 patients with MEN 2A had RET mutations on codon 634 of exon 11 (2 patients, C634R; 2 patients, C634Y) and the other patient on codon 618 of exon 10 (C618R). One patient with FMTC had a mutation on codon 634 (C634W). Three patients with sporadic MTC had RET mutations on codon 634 (2 patients, C634Y; 1 patient, C634S). However, no genotype- phenotype relationship could be found, due to the limited number of patients. CONCLUSION: Thirty-one percent (9/29) of the patients with MTC had RET proto-oncogene mutations. Three-quarters (9/12) of the Korean patients with MEN 2A, including another 7 patients reported in 3 papers in Korea, had RET mutations on codon 634 of exon 11 (4 patients, C634R; 4 patients, C634Y; 1 patient, C634W), but a quarter (3/12) had mutations on codon 618 of exon 10 (2 patients, C618R; 1 patient, C618S). Although no relations could be found between the genotypes and phenotypes, extensive prospective studies will be required to verify this.
Key Words: RET proto-oncogene, Medullary thyroid carcinoma, MEN


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