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Articles in E-pub version are posted online ahead of regular printed publication.

Original Article
Cost-Utility Analysis of Early Detection with Ultrasonography of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: A Retrospective Study on a Korean Population
Han-Sang Baek, Jeonghoon Ha, Kwangsoon Kim, Ja Seong Bae, Jeong Soo Kim, Sungju Kim, Dong-Jun Lim, Chul-Min Kim
Received October 24, 2023  Accepted January 22, 2024  Published online April 9, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1870    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
There is debate about ultrasonography screening for thyroid cancer and its cost-effectiveness. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of early screening (ES) versus symptomatic detection (SD) for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in Korea.
Methods
A Markov decision analysis model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of ES and SD. The model considered direct medical costs, health outcomes, and different diagnostic and treatment pathways. Input data were derived from literature and Korean population studies. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated. Willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold was set at USD 100,000 or 20,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address uncertainties of the model’s variables.
Results
In a base case scenario with 50 years of follow-up, ES was found to be cost-effective compared to SD, with an ICER of $2,852 per QALY. With WTP set at $100,000, in the case with follow-up less than 10 years, the SD was cost-effective. Sensitivity analysis showed that variables such as lobectomy probability, age, mortality, and utility scores significantly influenced the ICER. Despite variations in costs and other factors, all ICER values remained below the WTP threshold.
Conclusion
Findings of this study indicate that ES is a cost-effective strategy for DTC screening in the Korean medical system. Early detection and subsequent lobectomy contribute to the cost-effectiveness of ES, while SD at an advanced stage makes ES more cost-effective. Expected follow-up duration should be considered to determine an optimal strategy for DTC screening.
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Review Articles
Treatment of Hypoparathyroidism by Re-Establishing the Effects of Parathyroid Hormone
Lars Rejnmark
Received December 30, 2023  Accepted February 19, 2024  Published online April 4, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1916    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The conventional treatment of hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) includes active vitamin D and calcium. Despite normalization of calcium levels, the conventional treatment is associated with fluctuations in calcium levels, hypercalciuria, renal impairment, and decreased quality of life (QoL). Replacement therapy with parathyroid hormone (PTH)(1-84) is an option in some countries. However, convincing beneficial effects have not been demonstrated, which may be due to the short duration of action of this treatment. Recently, palopegteriparatide (also known as TransCon PTH) has been marketed in Europe and is expected also to be approved in other countries. Palopegteriparatide is a prodrug with sustained release of PTH(1-34) designed to provide stable physiological PTH levels for 24 hours/day. A phase 3 study demonstrated maintenance of normocalcemia in patients with chronic HypoPT, with no need for conventional therapy. Furthermore, this treatment lowers urinary calcium and improves QoL. Another long-acting PTH analog with effects on the parathyroid hormone receptor (eneboparatide) is currently being tested in a phase 3 trial. Furthermore, the treatment of autosomal dominant hypocalcemia type 1 with a calcilytic (encaleret) is also being tested. All in all, improved treatment options are on the way that will likely take the treatment of HypoPT to the next level.
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Scaling Insulin-Producing Cells by Multiple Strategies
Jinhyuk Choi, Fritz Cayabyab, Harvey Perez, Eiji Yoshihara
Received December 27, 2023  Accepted January 30, 2024  Published online April 4, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1910    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
In the quest to combat insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), allogenic pancreatic islet cell therapy sourced from deceased donors represents a significant therapeutic advance. However, the applicability of this approach is hampered by donor scarcity and the demand for sustained immunosuppression. Human induced pluripotent stem cells are a game-changing resource for generating synthetic functional insulin-producing β cells. In addition, novel methodologies allow the direct expansion of pancreatic progenitors and mature β cells, thereby circumventing prolonged differentiation. Nevertheless, achieving practical reproducibility and scalability presents a substantial challenge for this technology. As these innovative approaches become more prominent, it is crucial to thoroughly evaluate existing expansion techniques with an emphasis on their optimization and scalability. This manuscript delineates these cutting-edge advancements, offers a critical analysis of the prevailing strategies, and underscores pivotal challenges, including cost-efficiency and logistical issues. Our insights provide a roadmap, elucidating both the promises and the imperatives in harnessing the potential of these cellular therapies for IDDM.
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Original Articles
Clinicopathological Features and Molecular Signatures of Lateral Neck Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma
Jinsun Lim, Han Sai Lee, Jin-Hyung Heo, Young Shin Song
Received November 19, 2023  Accepted January 25, 2024  Published online April 4, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1885    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The predictive factors for lateral neck lymph node metastasis (LLNM) in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) remain undetermined. This study investigated the clinicopathological characteristics, transcriptomes, and tumor microenvironment in PTMC according to the LLNM status. We aimed to identify the biomarkers associated with LLNM development.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with PTMC from two independent institutions between 2018 and 2022 (n=597 and n=467). We compared clinicopathological features between patients without lymph node metastasis (N0) and those with LLNM (N1b). Additionally, laser capture microdissection and RNA sequencing were performed on primary tumors from both groups, including metastatic lymph nodes from the N1b group (n=30; 20 primary tumors and 10 paired LLNMs). We corroborated the findings using RNA sequencing data from 16 BRAF-like PTMCs from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Transcriptomic analyses were validated by immunohistochemical staining.
Results
Clinicopathological characteristics, such as male sex, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, lymphatic invasion, and central node metastasis showed associations with LLNM in PTMCs. Transcriptomic profiles between the N0 and N1b PTMC groups were similar. However, tumor microenvironment deconvolution from RNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry revealed an increased abundance of tumor-associated macrophages, particularly M2 macrophages, in the N1b group.
Conclusion
Patients with PTMC who have a male sex, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, lymphatic invasion, and central node metastasis exhibited an elevated risk for LLNM. Furthermore, infiltration of M2 macrophages in the tumor microenvironment potentially supports tumor progression and LLNM in PTMCs.
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Prognostic Roles of Inflammatory Biomarkers in Radioiodine-Refractory Thyroid Cancer Treated with Lenvatinib
Chae A Kim, Mijin Kim, Meihua Jin, Hee Kyung Kim, Min Ji Jeon, Dong Jun Lim, Bo Hyun Kim, Ho-Cheol Kang, Won Bae Kim, Dong Yeob Shin, Won Gu Kim
Received October 12, 2023  Accepted January 29, 2024  Published online April 4, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1854    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Inflammatory biomarkers, such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), serve as valuable prognostic indicators in various cancers. This multicenter, retrospective cohort study assessed the treatment outcomes of lenvatinib in 71 patients with radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory thyroid cancer, considering the baseline inflammatory biomarkers.
Methods
This study retrospectively included patients from five tertiary hospitals in Korea whose complete blood counts were available before lenvatinib treatment. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated based on the median value of inflammatory biomarkers.
Results
No significant differences in baseline characteristics were observed among patients grouped according to the inflammatory biomarkers, except for older patients with a higher-than-median NLR (≥2) compared to their counterparts with a lower NLR (P= 0.01). Patients with a higher-than-median NLR had significantly shorter PFS (P=0.02) and OS (P=0.017) than those with a lower NLR. In multivariate analysis, a higher-than-median NLR was significantly associated with poor OS (hazard ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.24 to 7.29; P=0.015). However, neither the LMR nor the PLR was associated with PFS. A higher-than-median LMR (≥3.9) was significantly associated with prolonged OS compared to a lower LMR (P=0.036). In contrast, a higher-than-median PLR (≥142.1) was associated with shorter OS compared to a lower PLR (P=0.039).
Conclusion
Baseline inflammatory biomarkers can serve as predictive indicators of PFS and OS in patients with RAI-refractory thyroid cancer treated with lenvatinib.
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Review Article
Glucocorticoid-Induced Hyperglycemia: A Neglected Problem
Jung-Hwan Cho, Sunghwan Suh
Received February 1, 2024  Accepted February 20, 2024  Published online March 27, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1951    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Glucocorticoids provide a potent therapeutic response and are widely used to treat a variety of diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. However, the issue of glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia (GIH), which is observed in over one-third of patients treated with glucocorticoids, is often neglected. To improve the clinical course and prognosis of diseases that necessitate glucocorticoid therapy, proper management of GIH is essential. The key pathophysiology of GIH includes systemic insulin resistance, which exacerbates hepatic steatosis and visceral obesity, as well as proteolysis and lipolysis of muscle and adipose tissue, coupled with β-cell dysfunction. For patients on glucocorticoid therapy, risk stratification should be conducted through a detailed baseline evaluation, and frequent glucose monitoring is recommended to detect the onset of GIH, particularly in high-risk individuals. Patients with confirmed GIH who require treatment should follow an insulin-centered regimen that varies depending on whether they are inpatients or outpatients, as well as the type and dosage of glucocorticoid used. The ideal strategy to maintain normoglycemia while preventing hypoglycemia is to combine basal-bolus insulin and correction doses with a continuous glucose monitoring system. This review focuses on the current understanding and latest evidence concerning GIH, incorporating insights gained from the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Original Articles
Effects of an Electronic Medical Records-Linked Diabetes Self-Management System on Treatment Targets in Real Clinical Practice: Retrospective, Observational Cohort Study
So Jung Yang, Sun-Young Lim, Yoon Hee Choi, Jin Hee Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon
Received November 10, 2023  Accepted January 22, 2024  Published online March 21, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1878    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study evaluated the effects of a mobile diabetes management program called “iCareD” (College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea) which was integrated into the hospital’s electronic medical records system to minimize the workload of the healthcare team in the real clinical practice setting.
Methods
In this retrospective observational study, we recruited 308 patients. We categorized these patients based on their compliance regarding their use of the iCareD program at home; compliance was determined through self-monitored blood glucose inputs and message subscription rates. We analyzed changes in the ABC (hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels from the baseline to 12 months thereafter, based on the patients’ iCareD usage patterns.
Results
The patients comprised 92 (30%) non-users, 170 (55%) poor-compliance users, and 46 (15%) good-compliance users; the ABC target achievement rate showed prominent changes in good-compliance groups from baseline to 12 months (10.9% vs. 23.9%, P<0.05), whereas no significant changes were observed for poor-compliance users and non-users (13.5% vs. 18.8%, P=0.106; 20.7% vs. 14.1%, P=0.201; respectively).
Conclusion
Implementing the iCareD can improve the ABC levels of patients with diabetes with minimal efforts of the healthcare team in real clinical settings. However, the improvement of patients’ compliance concerning the use of the system without the vigorous intervention of the healthcare team needs to be solved in the future.
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Protein Signatures of Parathyroid Adenoma according to Tumor Volume and Functionality
Sung Hye Kong, Jeong Mo Bae, Jung Hee Kim, Sang Wan Kim, Dohyun Han, Chan Soo Shin
Received September 14, 2023  Accepted December 21, 2023  Published online March 21, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1827    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Parathyroid adenoma (PA) is a common endocrine disease linked to multiple complications, but the pathophysiology of the disease remains incompletely understood. The study aimed to identify the key regulator proteins and pathways of PA according to functionality and volume through quantitative proteomic analyses.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective study of 15 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded PA samples from tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Proteins were extracted, digested, and the resulting peptides were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pearson correlation analysis was employed to identify proteins significantly correlated with clinical variables. Canonical pathways and transcription factors were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.
Results
The median age of the participants was 52 years, and 60.0% were female. Among the 8,153 protein groups analyzed, 496 showed significant positive correlations with adenoma volume, while 431 proteins were significantly correlated with parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. The proteins SLC12A9, LGALS3, and CARM1 were positively correlated with adenoma volume, while HSP90AB2P, HLA-DRA, and SCD5 showed negative correlations. DCPS, IRF2BPL, and FAM98A were the main proteins that exhibited positive correlations with PTH levels, and SLITRK4, LAP3, and AP4E1 had negative correlations. Canonical pathway analysis demonstrated that the RAN and sirtuin signaling pathways were positively correlated with both PTH levels and adenoma volume, while epithelial adherence junction pathways had negative correlations.
Conclusion
Our study identified pivotal proteins and pathways associated with PA, offering potential therapeutic targets. These findings accentuate the importance of proteomics in understanding disease pathophysiology and the need for further research.
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Review Article
Acquired Forms of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23-Related Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia
Nobuaki Ito, Naoko Hidaka, Hajime Kato
Received December 23, 2023  Accepted January 29, 2024  Published online March 11, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1908    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a pivotal humoral factor for the regulation of serum phosphate levels and was first identified in patients with autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets and tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO), the most common form of acquired FGF23-related hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia (FGF23rHR). After the identification of FGF23, many other inherited and acquired forms of FGF23rHR were reported. In this review article, the detailed features of each acquired FGF23rHR are discussed, including TIO, ectopic FGF23 syndrome with malignancy, fibrous dysplasia/McCune-Albright syndrome, Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome/cutaneous skeletal hypophosphatemia syndrome, intravenous iron preparation-induced FGF23rHR, alcohol consumption-induced FGF23rHR, and post-kidney transplantation hypophosphatemia. Then, an approach for the differential diagnosis and therapeutic options for each disorder are concisely introduced. Currently, the majority of endocrinologists might only consider TIO when encountering patients with acquired FGF23rHR; an adequate differential diagnosis can reduce medical costs and invasive procedures such as positron emission tomography/computed tomography and venous sampling to identify FGF23-producing tumors. Furthermore, some acquired FGF23rHRs, such as intravenous iron preparation/alcohol consumption-induced FGF23rHR, require only cessation of drugs or alcohol to achieve full recovery from osteomalacia.
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Original Articles
Risk of Subsequent Primary Cancers in Thyroid Cancer Survivors according to the Dose of Levothyroxine: A Nationwide Cohort Study
Min-Su Kim, Jang Won Lee, Min Kyung Hyun, Young Shin Song
Received August 31, 2023  Accepted January 8, 2024  Published online March 4, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1815    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Current research has not investigated the effect of thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy with levothyroxine on the risk for developing subsequent primary cancers (SPCs). This study aimed to investigate the association between levothyroxine dosage and the risk for SPCs in thyroid cancer patients.
Methods
We conducted a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study form Korean National Health Insurance database. This cohort included 342,920 thyroid cancer patients between 2004 and 2018. Patients were divided into the non-levothyroxine and the levothyroxine groups, the latter consisting of four dosage subgroups according to quartiles. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to evaluate the risk for SPCs by adjusting for variables including cumulative doses of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy.
Results
A total of 17,410 SPC cases were observed over a median 7.3 years of follow-up. The high-dose levothyroxine subgroups (Q3 and Q4) had a higher risk for SPC (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.14 and 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.24 and 1.17– 1.37; respectively) compared to the non-levothyroxine group. In particular, the adjusted HR of stomach (1.31), colorectal (1.60), liver and biliary tract (1.95), and pancreatic (2.48) cancers were increased in the Q4 subgroup. We consistently observed a positive association between high levothyroxine dosage per body weight and risk of SPCs, even after adjusting for various confounding variables. Moreover, similar results were identified in the stratified analyses according to thyroidectomy type and RAI therapy, as well as in a subgroup analysis of patients with good adherence.
Conclusion
High-dose levothyroxine use was associated with increased risk of SPCs among thyroid cancer patients regardless of RAI therapy.
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Clinical Characteristics, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumor (TSH PitNET): A Single-Center Experience
Jung Heo, Yeon-Lim Suh, Se Hoon Kim, Doo-Sik Kong, Do-Hyun Nam, Won-Jae Lee, Sung Tae Kim, Sang Duk Hong, Sujin Ryu, You-Bin Lee, Gyuri Kim, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hyeon Kim, Kyu Yeon Hur
Received November 8, 2023  Accepted December 21, 2023  Published online February 5, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1877    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary neuroendocrine tumor (TSH PitNET) is a rare subtype of PitNET. We investigated the comprehensive characteristics and outcomes of TSH PitNET cases from a single medical center. Also, we compared diagnostic methods to determine which showed superior sensitivity.
Methods
A total of 17 patients diagnosed with TSH PitNET after surgery between 2002 and 2022 in Samsung Medical Center was retrospectively reviewed. Data on comprehensive characteristics and treatment outcomes were collected. The sensitivities of diagnostic methods were compared.
Results
Seven were male (41%), and the median age at diagnosis was 42 years (range, 21 to 65); the median follow-up duration was 37.4 months. The most common (59%) initial presentation was hyperthyroidism-related symptoms. Hormonal co-secretion was present in four (23%) patients. Elevated serum alpha-subunit (α-SU) showed the greatest diagnostic sensitivity (91%), followed by blunted response at thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation (80%) and elevated sex hormone binding globulin (63%). Fourteen (82%) patients had macroadenoma, and a specimen of one patient with heavy calcification was negative for TSH. Among 15 patients who were followed up for more than 6 months, 10 (67%) achieved hormonal and structural remission within 6 months postoperatively. A case of growth hormone (GH)/TSH/prolactin (PRL) co-secreting mixed gangliocytoma-pituitary adenoma (MGPA) was discovered.
Conclusion
The majority of the TSH PitNET cases was macroadenoma, and 23% showed hormone co-secretion. A rare case of GH/TSH/PRL co-secreting MGPA was discovered. Serum α-SU and TRH stimulation tests showed great diagnostic sensitivity. Careful consideration is needed in diagnosing TSH PitNET. Achieving remission requires complete tumor resection. In case of nonremission, radiotherapy or medical therapy can improve the long-term remission rate.
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Impact of Antidiabetic Drugs on Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
Han Na Jang, Sun Joon Moon, Jin Hyung Jung, Kyung-Do Han, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Received October 16, 2023  Accepted January 3, 2024  Published online January 29, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1857    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Inconsistent results have been reported regarding the association between the use of antidiabetic drugs and the clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate the effect of antidiabetic drugs on COVID-19 outcomes in patients with diabetes using data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) in South Korea.
Methods
We analyzed the NHIS data of patients aged ≥20 years who tested positive for COVID-19 and were taking antidiabetic drugs between December 2019 and June 2020. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 based on the use of antidiabetic drugs.
Results
A total of 556 patients taking antidiabetic drugs tested positive for COVID-19, including 271 male (48.7%), most of whom were in their sixties. Of all patients, 433 (77.9%) were hospitalized, 119 (21.4%) received oxygen treatment, 87 (15.6%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, 31 (5.6%) required mechanical ventilation, and 61 (11.0%) died. Metformin was significantly associated with the lower risks of mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 0.281; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.109 to 0.720; P=0.008), and death (OR, 0.395; 95% CI, 0.182 to 0.854; P=0.018). Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) were significantly associated with the lower risks of oxygen treatment (OR, 0.565; 95% CI, 0.356 to 0.895; P=0.015) and death (OR, 0.454; 95% CI, 0.217 to 0.949; P=0.036). Sulfonylurea was significantly associated with the higher risk of mechanical ventilation (OR, 2.579; 95% CI, 1.004 to 6.626; P=0.049).
Conclusion
In patients with diabetes and COVID-19, metformin exhibited reduced risks of mechanical ventilation and death, DPP- 4i was linked with lower risks of oxygen treatment and death, while sulfonylurea was related to the increased risk of mechanical ventilation.
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Docosahexanoic Acid Attenuates Palmitate-Induced Apoptosis by Autophagy Upregulation via GPR120/mTOR Axis in Insulin-Secreting Cells
Seok-Woo Hong, Jinmi Lee, Sun Joon Moon, Hyemi Kwon, Se Eun Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Received August 21, 2023  Accepted November 6, 2023  Published online January 23, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1809    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reportedly have protective effects on pancreatic β-cells; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown.
Methods
To investigate the cellular mechanism of PUFA-induced cell protection, mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells were cultured with palmitic acid (PA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alterations in cellular signaling and apoptosis were examined.
Results
DHA treatment remarkably repressed caspase-3 cleavage and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive red dot signals in PA-treated MIN6 cells, with upregulation of autophagy, an increase in microtubule- associated protein 1-light chain 3 (LC3)-II, autophagy-related 5 (Atg5), and decreased p62. Upstream factors involved in autophagy regulation (Beclin-1, unc51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 [ULK1], phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR], and protein kinase B) were also altered by DHA treatment. DHA specifically induced phosphorylation on S2448 in mTOR; however, phosphorylation on S2481 decreased. The role of G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) in the effect of DHA was demonstrated using a GPR120 agonist and antagonist. Additional treatment with AH7614, a GPR120 antagonist, significantly attenuated DHA-induced autophagy and protection. Taken together, DHA-induced autophagy activation with protection against PA-induced apoptosis mediated by the GPR120/mTOR axis.
Conclusion
These findings indicate that DHA has therapeutic effects on PA-induced pancreatic β-cells, and that the cellular mechanism of β-cell protection by DHA may be a new research target with potential pharmacotherapeutic implications in β-cell protection.
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The Diagnostic Role of Repeated Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules with Atypia of Undetermined Significance with Architectural Atypia on Core-Needle Biopsy
Hye Hyeon Moon, Sae Rom Chung, Young Jun Choi, Tae-Yon Sung, Dong Eun Song, Tae Yong Kim, Jeong Hyun Lee, Jung Hwan Baek
Received September 4, 2023  Accepted November 14, 2023  Published online January 3, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1818    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We aimed to evaluate the utility of repeat biopsy of thyroid nodules classified as atypia of undetermined significance with architectural atypia (IIIB) on core-needle biopsy (CNB).
Methods
This retrospective study evaluated patients with thyroid nodules categorized as IIIB on CNB between 2013 and 2015. Demographic characteristics, subsequent biopsy results, and ultrasound (US) images were evaluated. The malignancy rates of nodules according to number of CNBs and the number of IIIB diagnoses was compared. Demographic and US features were evaluated to determine factors predictive of malignancy.
Results
Of 1,003 IIIB nodules on CNB, the final diagnosis was determined for 328 (32.7%) nodules, with 121 of them confirmed as malignant, resulting in a malignancy rate of 36.9% (95% confidence interval, 31.7% to 42.1%). Repeat CNB was performed in 248 nodules (24.7%), with 75 (30.2%), 131 (52.8%), 13 (5.2%), 26 (10.5%), one (0.4%), and two (0.8%) reclassified into categories II, IIIB, IIIA, IV, V, and VI, respectively. Malignancy rates were not significantly affected by the number of CNBs (P=0.291) or the number of IIIB diagnoses (P=0.473). None of the nodules confirmed as category II on repeat CNB was malignant. US features significantly associated with malignancy (P<0.003) included solid composition, irregular margins, microcalcifications, and high suspicion on the US risk stratification system.
Conclusion
Repeat biopsy of nodules diagnosed with IIIB on CNB did not increase the detection of malignancy but can potentially reduce unnecessary surgery. Repeat biopsy should be performed selectively, with US features guiding the choice between repeat biopsy and diagnostic surgery.
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Effectiveness of a Social Networking Site Based Automatic Mobile Message Providing System on Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Kyuho Kim, Jae-Seung Yun, Joonyub Lee, Yeoree Yang, Minhan Lee, Yu-Bae Ahn, Jae Hyoung Cho, Seung-Hyun Ko
Received October 30, 2023  Accepted December 21, 2023  Published online December 27, 2023  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1871    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study investigated the effectiveness of a social networking site (SNS)-based automatic mobile message providing system on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
A 3-month, randomized, open-label, controlled, parallel-group trial was conducted. One hundred and ten participants with T2DM were randomized to a mobile message system (MMS) (n=55) or control group (n=55). The MMS group received protocolbased automated messages two times per day for 10 weeks regarding diabetes self-management through KakaoTalk SNS messenger. The primary outcome was the difference in the change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (%) from baseline to week 12.
Results
HbA1c levels were more markedly decreased in the MMS group (8.4%±0.7% to 8.0%±1.1%) than in the control group (8.5%±0.8% to 8.4%±0.8%), resulting in a significant between-group difference (P=0.027). No differences were observed in changes in fasting glucose levels, lipid profiles, and the number of participants who experienced hypoglycemia, or in changes in lifestyle behavior between groups. However, the self-monitoring of blood glucose frequency was significantly increased in the MMS group compared to the control group (P=0.003). In addition, sleep duration was increased in the MMS group, but was not changed in the control group.
Conclusion
An SNS-based automatic mobile message providing system was effective in improving glycemic control in patients in T2DM. Studies which based on a more individualized protocol, and investigate longer beneficial effect and sustainability will be required in the future.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism