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Most-read articles are from the articles published in 2022 during the last three month.

Review Article
Thyroid
Update from the 2022 World Health Organization Classification of Thyroid Tumors: A Standardized Diagnostic Approach
Chan Kwon Jung, Andrey Bychkov, Kennichi Kakudo
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(5):703-718.   Published online October 4, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1553
  • 13,311 View
  • 1,854 Download
  • 39 Web of Science
  • 52 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The fifth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) histologic classification of thyroid neoplasms released in 2022 includes newly recognized tumor types, subtypes, and a grading system. Follicular cell-derived neoplasms are categorized into three families (classes): benign tumors, low-risk neoplasms, and malignant neoplasms. The terms “follicular nodular disease” and “differentiated high-grade thyroid carcinoma” are introduced to account for multifocal hyperplastic/neoplastic lesions and differentiated thyroid carcinomas with high-grade features, respectively. The term “Hürthle cells” is replaced with “oncocytic cells.” Invasive encapsulated follicular and cribriform morular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are now redefined as distinct tumor types, given their different genetic alterations and clinicopathologic characteristics from other PTC subtypes. The term “variant” to describe a subclass of tumor has been replaced with the term “subtype.” Instead, the term “variant” is reserved to describe genetic alterations. A histologic grading system based on the mitotic count, necrosis, and/or the Ki67 index is used to identify high-grade follicular-cell derived carcinomas and medullary thyroid carcinomas. The 2022 WHO classification introduces the following new categories: “salivary gland-type carcinomas of the thyroid” and “thyroid tumors of uncertain histogenesis.” This review summarizes the major changes in the 2022 WHO classification and their clinical relevance.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Toui Nishikawa, Ibu Matsuzaki, Ayata Takahashi, Iwamoto Ryuta, Fidele Yambayamba Musangile, Kanako Sagan, Mizuki Nishikawa, Yurina Mikasa, Yuichi Takahashi, Fumiyoshi Kojima, Shin-ichi Murata
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    S.M. Cherenko
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  • Molecular Alterations and Comprehensive Clinical Management of Oncocytic Thyroid Carcinoma
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    Annales de Pathologie.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Heeseung Sohn, Kennichi Kakudo, Chan Kwon Jung
    Cytopathology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Chankyung Kim, Shipra Agarwal, Andrey Bychkov, Jen-Fan Hang, Agnes Stephanie Harahap, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Kennichi Kakudo, Somboon Keelawat, Chih-Yi Liu, Zhiyan Liu, Truong Phan-Xuan Nguyen, Chanchal Rana, Huy Gia Vuong, Yun Zhu, Chan Kwon Jung
    Virchows Archiv.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Update on C-Cell Neuroendocrine Neoplasm: Prognostic and Predictive Histopathologic and Molecular Features of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
    Chan Kwon Jung, Shipra Agarwal, Jen-Fan Hang, Dong-Jun Lim, Andrey Bychkov, Ozgur Mete
    Endocrine Pathology.2023; 34(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • The 5th edition of WHO classification of tumors of endocrine organs: changes in the diagnosis of follicular-derived thyroid carcinoma
    Fulvio Basolo, Elisabetta Macerola, Anello Marcello Poma, Liborio Torregrossa
    Endocrine.2023; 80(3): 470.     CrossRef
  • Preoperative Risk Stratification of Follicular-patterned Thyroid Lesions on Core Needle Biopsy by Histologic Subtyping and RAS Variant-specific Immunohistochemistry
    Meejeong Kim, Sora Jeon, Chan Kwon Jung
    Endocrine Pathology.2023; 34(2): 247.     CrossRef
  • Ultrasound evolution of parenchymal changes in the thyroid gland with autoimmune thyroiditis in children prior to the development of papillary thyroid carcinoma – a follow-up study
    Dominika Januś, Monika Kujdowicz, Małgorzata Wójcik, Anna Taczanowska-Niemczuk, Aleksandra Kiszka-Wiłkojć, Wojciech Górecki, Jerzy B. Starzyk
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Biomedicines.2023; 11(4): 1217.     CrossRef
  • Molecular Genetics of Diffuse Sclerosing Papillary Thyroid Cancer
    Meshael Alswailem, Balgees Alghamdi, Anwar Alotaibi, Abeer Aljomiah, Hindi Al-Hindi, Avaniyapuram Kannan Murugan, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Yufei Shi, Ali S Alzahrani
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023; 108(9): e704.     CrossRef
  • Multifunctional Phase-Transition Nanoparticles for Effective Targeted Sonodynamic-Gene Therapy Against Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma
    Shihui Guan, Dengke Teng, Hui Wang, Qimeihui Wang, Xi Zhen, Guoqing Sui, Yang Wang, Lingyu Zhu, Yuanqiang Lin, Dan Jiao, Feng Guo
    International Journal of Nanomedicine.2023; Volume 18: 2275.     CrossRef
  • Utilizing Dynamic Risk Stratification in Patients With Tall Cell Variant Papillary Thyroid Cancer
    David Zimmer, Gilman Plitt, Brandon Prendes, Jamie Ku, Natalie Silver, Eric Lamarre, Emrullah Yilmaz, Jessica Geiger, Christian Nasr, Lea El Hage, Mario Skugor, Shauna Cambpell, Shlomo Koyfman, Jacob Miller, Neil Woody, Katherine Heiden, Nikhil Joshi, Tar
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    Dominika Januś, Małgorzata Wójcik, Anna Taczanowska-Niemczuk, Aleksandra Kiszka-Wiłkojć, Monika Kujdowicz, Małgorzata Czogała, Wojciech Górecki, Jerzy B. Starzyk
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  • Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Single Institute Experience
    Sonal Trivedi, T. Salahuddin, Mohamed Taher Mithi, Priyank Rathod, Arpit Bandi, Shashank J. Pandya, Mohit Sharma, Shailesh Patel, Vikas Warikoo, Ketul Puj, Abhijeet Salunkhe, Keval Patel, Shivam Pandya
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  • FNAC (Fine needle aspiration cytology) and histopathological correlation and reclassification of thyroid neoplasm in accordance with WHO classification 2022
    Fareeda Joshi, Shreya Hegde
    Indian Journal of Pathology and Oncology.2023; 10(2): 132.     CrossRef
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with non‑functioning parathyroid carcinoma with Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland: A case report and brief literature review
    Ari Abdullah, Aras Qaradakhy, Yadgar Saeed, Abdulwahid Salih, Seema Karim, Osama Ali, Shko Hassan, Shalaw Nasraldeen, Shvan Mohammed, Fahmi Kakamad
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    Chan Kwon Jung
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  • Cancer Predisposition Syndromes and Thyroid Cancer: Keys for a Short Two-Way Street
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  • Cytology and Histology of Thyroid Nodules: Exploring Novel Insights in the Molecular Era for Enhanced Patient Management
    Beatrix Cochand-Priollet, Zahra Maleki
    Current Oncology.2023; 30(8): 7753.     CrossRef
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    Oncology Letters.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    身吾 王
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  • Somatostatin Receptor Type 2 and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Expression in Oncocytic Thyroid Neoplasms: Implications for Prognosis and Treatment
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    Frontiers in Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Utility of the Growth Differentiation Factor-15 in the Differential Diagnosis of Follicular-Patterned Lesions of the Thyroid on Cytopathologic and Histopathologic Samples
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  • Investigation of pre‐operative demographic, biochemical, sonographic and cytopathological findings in low‐risk thyroid neoplasms
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  • The Asian Thyroid Working Group, from 2017 to 2023
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    Abdul-Mohsen Alhejaily, Omar Alhuzim, Yazeed Alwelaie
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  • Simultaneous Occurrence of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Series with Literature Review
    Poupak Fallahi, Armando Patrizio, Giulio Stoppini, Giusy Elia, Francesca Ragusa, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Eugenia Balestri, Valeria Mazzi, Chiara Botrini, Gilda Varricchi, Salvatore Ulisse, Marco Ghionzoli, Alessandro Antonelli, Silvia Martina Ferrari
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  • Construction and validation of a nomogram for predicting cervical lymph node metastasis in diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma
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  • Canine follicular cell and medullary thyroid carcinomas: Immunohistochemical characterization
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    Veterinary Pathology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Management of aggressive variants of papillary thyroid cancer
    Ying Ki Lee, Aleix Rovira, Paul V. Carroll, Ricard Simo
    Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head & Neck Surgery.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A 16-Year Single-Center Series of Trachea Resections for Locally Advanced Thyroid Carcinoma
    Julia I. Staubitz-Vernazza, Sina Schwind, Oana Lozan, Thomas J. Musholt
    Cancers.2023; 16(1): 163.     CrossRef
  • Reprogramming of Cellular Metabolism and Its Therapeutic Applications in Thyroid Cancer
    Yuji Nagayama, Koichiro Hamada
    Metabolites.2022; 12(12): 1214.     CrossRef
  • Developments to improve outcomes in thyroid surgery
    Thomas J. Musholt
    Innovative Surgical Sciences.2022; 7(3-4): 77.     CrossRef
  • The relationship of the clinicopathological characteristics and treatment results of post-Chornobyl papillary thyroid microcarcinomas with the latency period and radiation exposure
    Tetiana Bogdanova, Serhii Chernyshov, Liudmyla Zurnadzhy, Tatiana I. Rogounovitch, Norisato Mitsutake, Mykola Tronko, Masahiro Ito, Michael Bolgov, Sergii Masiuk, Shunichi Yamashita, Vladimir A. Saenko
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Special Article
Adrenal gland
2023 Korean Endocrine Society Consensus Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Primary Aldosteronism
Jeonghoon Ha, Jung Hwan Park, Kyoung Jin Kim, Jung Hee Kim, Kyong Yeun Jung, Jeongmin Lee, Jong Han Choi, Seung Hun Lee, Namki Hong, Jung Soo Lim, Byung Kwan Park, Jung-Han Kim, Kyeong Cheon Jung, Jooyoung Cho, Mi-kyung Kim, Choon Hee Chung, The Committee of Clinical Practice Guideline of Korean Endocrine Society, The Korean Adrenal Study Group of Korean Endocrine Society
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):597-618.   Published online October 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1789
  • 2,590 View
  • 332 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a common, yet underdiagnosed cause of secondary hypertension. It is characterized by an overproduction of aldosterone, leading to hypertension and/or hypokalemia. Despite affecting between 5.9% and 34% of patients with hypertension, PA is frequently missed due to a lack of clinical awareness and systematic screening, which can result in significant cardiovascular complications. To address this, medical societies have developed clinical practice guidelines to improve the management of hypertension and PA. The Korean Endocrine Society, drawing on a wealth of research, has formulated new guidelines for PA. A task force has been established to prepare PA guidelines, which encompass epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care. The Korean clinical guidelines for PA aim to deliver an evidence-based protocol for PA diagnosis, treatment, and patient monitoring. These guidelines are anticipated to ease the burden of this potentially curable condition.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Correlation of Histopathologic Subtypes of Primary Aldosteronism with Clinical Phenotypes and Postsurgical Outcomes
    Chang Ho Ahn, You-Bin Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim, Young Lyun Oh, Jung Hee Kim, Kyeong Cheon Jung
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Close layer
Review Articles
Adrenal Gland
Recent Updates on the Management of Adrenal Incidentalomas
Seung Shin Park, Jung Hee Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(4):373-380.   Published online August 16, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1779
  • 5,106 View
  • 1,229 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Adrenal incidentalomas represent an increasingly common clinical conundrum with significant implications for patients. The revised 2023 European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) guideline incorporates cutting-edge evidence for managing adrenal incidentalomas. This paper provides a concise review of the updated contents of the revised guideline. In the 2023 guideline, in patients without signs and symptoms of overt Cushing’s syndrome, a post-dexamethasone cortisol level above 50 nmol/L (>1.8 μg/dL) should be considered as mild autonomous cortisol secretion. Regarding the criteria of benign adrenal adenomas, a homogeneous adrenal mass with ≤10 Hounsfield units on non-contrast computed tomography requires no further follow-up, irrespective of its size. The updated guideline also discusses steroid metabolomics using tandem mass spectrometry to discriminate malignancy. It underscores the importance of high-volume surgeons performing adrenalectomy and emphasizes the pivotal role of a multidisciplinary team approach in deciding the treatment plan for indeterminate adrenal masses. The guideline advocates for more proactive surgical treatment for indeterminate adrenal masses in young patients (<40 years) and pregnant women. This review of the 2023 ESE guideline underscores the ongoing evolution of the adrenal incidentaloma management landscape, emphasizing the need for further research and adaptation of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
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Calcium & Bone Metabolism
Discontinuing Denosumab: Can It Be Done Safely? A Review of the Literature
Wei Lin Tay, Donovan Tay
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(2):183-194.   Published online April 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1369
  • 14,900 View
  • 840 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Denosumab, which has been approved for the treatment of osteoporosis since 2010, is a fully humanised monoclonal antibody against a cytokine, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), involved in bone resorption. Continued use of denosumab results in a potent and sustained decrease in bone turnover, an increase in bone mineral density (BMD), and a reduction in vertebral and hip fractures. The anti-resorptive effects of denosumab are reversible upon cessation, and this reversal is accompanied by a transient marked increase in bone turnover that is associated with bone loss, and of concern, an increased risk of multiple vertebral fractures. In this review, we outline the effects of denosumab withdrawal on bone turnover markers, BMD, histomorphometry, and fracture risk. We provide an update on recent clinical trials that sought to answer how clinicians can transition away from denosumab safely with follow-on therapy to mitigate bone loss and summarise the recommendations of various international guidelines.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Loss of lower extremity bone mineral density 1 year after denosumab is discontinued in persons with subacute spinal cord injury
    Christopher M. Cirnigliaro, Michael F. La Fountaine, J. Scott Parrott, Steven C. Kirshblum, Susan J. Sauer, Sue A. Shapses, Isa A. McClure, William A. Bauman
    Osteoporosis International.2023; 34(4): 741.     CrossRef
  • Persistence with Denosumab in Male Osteoporosis Patients: A Real-World, Non-Interventional Multicenter Study
    Chaiho Jeong, Jeongmin Lee, Jinyoung Kim, Jeonghoon Ha, Kwanhoon Jo, Yejee Lim, Mee Kyoung Kim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Tae-Seo Sohn, Ki-Ho Song, Moo Il Kang, Ki-Hyun Baek
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(2): 260.     CrossRef
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Miscellaneous
Toward Systems-Level Metabolic Analysis in Endocrine Disorders and Cancer
Aliya Lakhani, Da Hyun Kang, Yea Eun Kang, Junyoung O. Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):619-630.   Published online November 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1814
  • 1,831 View
  • 96 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Metabolism is a dynamic network of biochemical reactions that support systemic homeostasis amidst changing nutritional, environmental, and physical activity factors. The circulatory system facilitates metabolite exchange among organs, while the endocrine system finely tunes metabolism through hormone release. Endocrine disorders like obesity, diabetes, and Cushing’s syndrome disrupt this balance, contributing to systemic inflammation and global health burdens. They accompany metabolic changes on multiple levels from molecular interactions to individual organs to the whole body. Understanding how metabolic fluxes relate to endocrine disorders illuminates the underlying dysregulation. Cancer is increasingly considered a systemic disorder because it not only affects cells in localized tumors but also the whole body, especially in metastasis. In tumorigenesis, cancer-specific mutations and nutrient availability in the tumor microenvironment reprogram cellular metabolism to meet increased energy and biosynthesis needs. Cancer cachexia results in metabolic changes to other organs like muscle, adipose tissue, and liver. This review explores the interplay between the endocrine system and systems-level metabolism in health and disease. We highlight metabolic fluxes in conditions like obesity, diabetes, Cushing’s syndrome, and cancers. Recent advances in metabolomics, fluxomics, and systems biology promise new insights into dynamic metabolism, offering potential biomarkers, therapeutic targets, and personalized medicine.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Editorial: Tumor metabolism and programmed cell death
    Dan-Lan Pu, Qi-Nan Wu
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Thyroid
Prenatal Exposure to Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances, Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction, and Child Autism Spectrum Disorder
Hyeong-Moo Shin, Jiwon Oh, Rebecca J. Schmidt, Elizabeth N. Pearce
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(6):819-829.   Published online November 23, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1598
  • 5,533 View
  • 125 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with its high economic and societal costs, is a growing public health concern whose prevalence has risen steadily over the last two decades. Although actual increased incidence versus improved diagnosis remains controversial, the increased prevalence of ASD suggests non-inherited factors as likely contributors. There is increasing epidemiologic evidence that abnormal maternal thyroid function during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of child ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) is known to disrupt thyroid function and can affect early brain development; thus, thyroid dysfunction is hypothesized to mediate this relationship. The concept of a potential pathway from prenatal PFAS exposure through thyroid dysfunction to ASD etiology is not new; however, the extant literature on this topic is scant. The aim of this review is to evaluate and summarize reports with regard to potential mechanisms in this pathway.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Endocrine Disruptors and Thyroid Health
    Elizabeth N. Pearce
    Endocrine Practice.2024; 30(2): 172.     CrossRef
  • Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction During Pregnancy as an Etiologic Factor in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Challenges and Opportunities for Research
    Zoe B. Kaplan, Elizabeth N. Pearce, Sun Y. Lee, Hyeong-Moo Shin, Rebecca J. Schmidt
    Thyroid®.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals on Human Health
    Jun Hyung Lee, Sung-Eun Cho
    Laboratory Medicine Online.2023; 13(3): 129.     CrossRef
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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Recent Updates to Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus
Jin Yu, Seung-Hwan Lee, Mee Kyoung Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(1):26-37.   Published online February 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.105
  • 14,798 View
  • 1,080 Download
  • 15 Web of Science
  • 17 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Guidelines for the management of patients with diabetes have become an important part of clinical practice that improve the quality of care and help establish evidence-based medicine in this field. With rapidly accumulating evidence on various aspects of diabetes care, including landmark clinical trials of treatment agents and newer technologies, timely updates of the guidelines capture the most current state of the field and present a consensus. As a leading academic society, the Korean Diabetes Association publishes practice guidelines biennially and the American Diabetes Association does so annually. In this review, we summarize the key changes suggested in the most recent guidelines. Some of the important updates include treatment algorithms emphasizing comorbid conditions such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease in the selection of anti-diabetic agents; wider application of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), insulin pump technologies and indices derived from CGM such as time in range; more active screening of subjects at high-risk of diabetes; and more detailed individualization in diabetes care. Although there are both similarities and differences among guidelines and some uncertainty remains, these updates provide a good approach for many clinical practitioners who are battling with diabetes.

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    Ji Yoon Kim, Nam Hoon Kim
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  • Finerenone: Efficacy of a New Nonsteroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist in Treatment of Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Type 2 Diabetes
    Subo Dey, Jasmine Garg, Andy Wang, Eva Holzner, William H. Frishman, Wilbert S. Aronow
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Thyroid
Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease during Pregnancy and Postpartum: 2023 Revised Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines
Hwa Young Ahn, Ka Hee Yi
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(3):289-294.   Published online June 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1696
  • 5,444 View
  • 629 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Thyroid hormone plays a critical role in fetal growth and development, and thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is associated with several adverse outcomes, such as miscarriage and preterm birth. In this review, we introduce and explain three major changes in the revised Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) guidelines for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy: first, the normal range of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) during pregnancy; second, the treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism; and third, the management of euthyroid pregnant women with positive thyroid autoantibodies. The revised KTA guidelines adopt 4.0 mIU/L as the upper limit of TSH in the first trimester. A TSH level between 4.0 and 10.0 mIU/L, combined with free thyroxine (T4) within the normal range, is defined as subclinical hypothyroidism, and a TSH level over 10 mIU/L is defined as overt hypothyroidism regardless of the free T4 level. Levothyroxine treatment is recommended when the TSH level is higher than 4 mIU/L in subclinical hypothyroidism, regardless of thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity. However, thyroid hormone therapy to prevent miscarriage is not recommended in thyroid autoantibody-positive women with normal thyroid function.

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  • Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Focus on Proven Health Effects in the 2023 Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines
    Eu Jeong Ku, Won Sang Yoo, Hyun Kyung Chung
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(4): 381.     CrossRef
  • Maternal isolated hypothyroxinemia in the first trimester is not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, except for macrosomia: a prospective cohort study in China
    Jing Du, Linong Ji, Xiaomei Zhang, Ning Yuan, Jianbin Sun, Dan Zhao
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Original Article
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Characteristics of Glycemic Control and Long-Term Complications in Patients with Young-Onset Type 2 Diabetes
Han-sang Baek, Ji-Yeon Park, Jin Yu, Joonyub Lee, Yeoree Yang, Jeonghoon Ha, Seung Hwan Lee, Jae Hyoung Cho, Dong-Jun Lim, Hun-Sung Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(4):641-651.   Published online August 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1501
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
The prevalence of young-onset diabetes (YOD) has been increasing worldwide. As the incidence of YOD increases, it is necessary to determine the characteristics of YOD and the factors that influence its development and associated complications.
Methods
In this retrospective study, we recruited patients who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus between June 2001 and December 2021 at a tertiary hospital. The study population was categorized according to age: YOD (age <40 years), middle-age-onset diabetes (MOD, 40≤ age <65 years), and late-onset diabetes (LOD, age ≥65 years). We examined trends in glycemic control by analyzing fasting glucose levels during the first year in each age group. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to determine the relative risk of developing complications according to glycemic control trends.
Results
The fasting glucose level at the time of diagnosis was highest in the YOD group (YOD 149±65 mg/dL; MOD 143±54 mg/dL; and LOD 140±55 mg/dL; p=0.009). In the YOD group, glucose levels decreased at 3 months, but increased by 12 months. YOD patients and those with poor glycemic control in the first year were at a higher risk of developing complications, whereas the risk in patients with LOD was not statistically significant.
Conclusion
YOD patients had higher glucose levels at diagnosis, and their glycemic control was poorly maintained. As poor glycemic control can influence the development of complications, especially in young patients, intensive treatment is necessary for patients with YOD.

Citations

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  • Complications and Treatment of Early-Onset Type 2 Diabetes
    Fahimeh Soheilipour, Naghmeh Abbasi Kasbi, Mahshid Imankhan, Delaram Eskandari
    International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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  • Characteristics of Glycemic Control and Long-Term Complications in Patients with Young-Onset Type 2 Diabetes (Endocrinol Metab 2022;37:641-51, Han-sang Baek et al.)
    Han-sang Baek, Ji-Yeon Park, Jin Yu, Joonyub Lee, Yeoree Yang, Jeonghoon Ha, Seung Hwan Lee, Jae Hyoung Cho, Dong-Jun Lim, Hun-Sung Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(6): 945.     CrossRef
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    Anju Virmani, Stuart J. Brink, Angela Middlehurst, Fauzia Mohsin, Franco Giraudo, Archana Sarda, Sana Ajmal, Julia E. von Oettingen, Kuben Pillay, Supawadee Likitmaskul, Luis Eduardo Calliari, Maria E. Craig
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    May Thu Hla Aye, Sajid Adhi Raja, Vui Heng Chong
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(6): 943.     CrossRef
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Review Articles
Miscellaneous
Brown Adipose Tissue: Activation and Metabolism in Humans
Imane Hachemi, Mueez U-Din
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(2):214-222.   Published online March 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1659
  • 4,917 View
  • 387 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ contributing to non-shivering thermogenesis. BAT becomes active under cold stress via sympathetic nervous system activation. However, recent evidence has suggested that BAT may also be active at thermoneutrality and in a postprandial state. BAT has superior energy dissipation capacity compared to white adipose tissue (WAT) and muscles. Thus, it has been proposed that the recruitment and activation of additional BAT may increase the overall energy-expending capacity in humans, potentially improving current whole-body weight management strategies. Nutrition plays a central role in obesity and weight management. Thus, this review discusses human studies describing BAT hyper-metabolism after dietary interventions. Nutritional agents that can potentially recruit brown adipocytes via the process of BAT-WAT transdifferentiation are also discussed.

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  • Spermidine activates adipose tissue thermogenesis through autophagy and fibroblast growth factor 21
    Yinhua Ni, Liujie Zheng, Liqian Zhang, Jiamin Li, Yuxiang Pan, Haimei Du, Zhaorong Wang, Zhengwei Fu
    The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry.2024; 125: 109569.     CrossRef
  • MRI Methods to Visualize and Quantify Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease
    Katerina Nikiforaki, Kostas Marias
    Biomedicines.2023; 11(12): 3179.     CrossRef
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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Lipoprotein Lipase: Is It a Magic Target for the Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia
Joon Ho Moon, Kyuho Kim, Sung Hee Choi
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(4):575-586.   Published online August 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.402
  • 5,805 View
  • 394 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
High levels of triglycerides (TG) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs) confer a residual risk of cardiovascular disease after optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)–lowering therapy. Consensus has been made that LDL-C is a non-arguable primary target for lipid lowering treatment, but the optimization of TGRL for reducing the remnant risk of cardiovascular diseases is urged. Omega-3 fatty acids and fibrates are used to reduce TG levels, but many patients still have high TG and TGRL levels combined with low high-density lipoprotein concentration that need to be ideally treated. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key regulator for TGs that hydrolyzes TGs to glycerol and free fatty acids in lipoprotein particles for lipid storage and consumption in peripheral organs. A deeper understanding of human genetics has enabled the identification of proteins regulating the LPL activity, which include the apolipoproteins and angiopoietin-like families. Novel therapeutic approach such as antisense oligonucleotides and monoclonal antibodies that regulate TGs have been developed in recent decades. In this article, we focus on the biology of LPL and its modulators and review recent clinical application, including genetic studies and clinical trials of novel therapeutics. Optimization of LPL activity to lower TG levels could eventually reduce incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in conjunction with successful LDL-C reduction.

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  • The chylomicron saga: time to focus on postprandial metabolism
    Alejandro Gugliucci
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Ning Gao, Yuanzhen Liu, Guangjie Liu, Bo Liu, Yupeng Cheng
    Food Science & Nutrition.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Monika I. Konaklieva, Balbina J. Plotkin
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    Franziska Schmalz, Janett Fischer, Hamish Innes, Stephan Buch, Christine Möller, Madlen Matz-Soja, Witigo von Schönfels, Benjamin Krämer, Bettina Langhans, Alexandra Klüners, Michael Soyka, Felix Stickel, Jacob Nattermann, Christian P. Strassburg, Thomas
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  • Measurement of Serum Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Triglyceride-Rich Remnant Cholesterol as Independent Predictors of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: Possibilities and Limitations
    Dieter Lütjohann, Hans-Ulrich Klör, Frans Stellaard
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  • Influence of antipsychotic medications on hyperlipidemia risk in patients with schizophrenia: evidence from a population-based cohort study and in vitro hepatic lipid homeostasis gene expression
    Tien-Yuan Wu, Ni Tien, Cheng-Li Lin, Yu-Cun Cheah, Chung Y. Hsu, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Yi-Jen Fang, Yun-Ping Lim
    Frontiers in Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Triglyceride-Rich Lipoprotein Metabolism: Key Regulators of Their Flux
    Alejandro Gugliucci
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(13): 4399.     CrossRef
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    Alejandro Gugliucci
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(17): 5660.     CrossRef
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    Sang Heon Suh, Soo Wan Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(5): 612.     CrossRef
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α in Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease
    Elena Valeria Fuior, Evangelia Zvintzou, Theodosios Filippatos, Katerina Giannatou, Victoria Mparnia, Maya Simionescu, Anca Violeta Gafencu, Kyriakos E. Kypreos
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    Julia Hernandez-Baixauli, Gertruda Chomiciute, Juan María Alcaide-Hidalgo, Anna Crescenti, Laura Baselga-Escudero, Hector Palacios-Jordan, Elisabet Foguet-Romero, Anna Pedret, Rosa M. Valls, Rosa Solà, Miquel Mulero, Josep M. Del Bas
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Calcium & Bone Metabolism
A Key Metabolic Regulator of Bone and Cartilage Health
Elizabeth Pérez-Hernández, Jesús Javier Pastrana-Carballo, Fernando Gómez-Chávez, Ramesh C. Gupta, Nury Pérez-Hernández
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(4):559-574.   Published online August 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1443
  • 6,709 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Taurine, a cysteine-derived zwitterionic sulfonic acid, is a common ingredient in energy drinks and is naturally found in fish and other seafood. In humans, taurine is produced mainly in the liver, and it can also be obtained from food. In target tissues, such as the retina, heart, and skeletal muscle, it functions as an essential antioxidant, osmolyte, and antiapoptotic agent. Taurine is also involved in energy metabolism and calcium homeostasis. Taurine plays a considerable role in bone growth and development, and high-profile reports have demonstrated the importance of its metabolism for bone health. However, these reports have not been collated for more than 10 years. Therefore, this review focuses on taurine–bone interactions and covers recently discovered aspects of taurine’s effects on osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, bone structure, and bone pathologies (e.g., osteoporosis and fracture healing), with due attention to the taurine–cartilage relationship.

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  • Metabolomics analysis of the potential mechanism of Yi-Guan-Jian decoction to reverse bone loss in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis
    Mengxing Yin, Dezhi Zhou, Fu Jia, Xiaosan Su, Xiufang Li, Ruifen Sun, Junmin Li
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  • Flattening the biological age curve by improving metabolic health: to taurine or not to taurine, that’ s the question
    Kwok M. Ho, Anna Lee, William Wu, Matthew T.V. Chan, Lowell Ling, Jeffrey Lipman, Jason Roberts, Edward Litton, Gavin M. Joynt, Martin Wong
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Hypothalamus and pituitary gland
Update on Current Evidence for the Diagnosis and Management of Nonfunctioning Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumors
Elizabeth Whyte, Masahiro Nezu, Constance Chik, Toru Tateno
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):631-654.   Published online November 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1838
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) are the third most frequently diagnosed intracranial tumors, with nonfunctioning PitNETs (nfPitNETs) accounting for 30% of all pituitary tumors and representing the most common type of macroPitNETs. NfPitNETs are usually benign tumors with no evidence of hormone oversecretion except for hyperprolactinemia secondary to pituitary stalk compression. Due to this, they do not typically present with clinical syndromes like acromegaly, Cushing’s disease or hyperthyroidism and instead are identified incidentally on imaging or from symptoms of mass effects (headache, vision changes, apoplexy). With the lack of effective medical interventions, first-line treatment is transsphenoidal surgical resection, however, nfPitNETs often have supra- or parasellar extension, and total resection of the tumor is often not possible, resulting in residual tumor regrowth or reoccurrence. While functional PitNETs can be easily followed for recurrence using hormonal biomarkers, there is no similar parameter to predict recurrence in nfPitNETs, hence delaying early recognition and timely management. Therefore, there is a need to identify prognostic biomarkers that can be used for patient surveillance and as therapeutic targets. This review focuses on summarizing the current evidence on nfPitNETs, with a special focus on potential new biomarkers and therapeutics.
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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Renal Protection of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist, Finerenone, in Diabetic Kidney Disease
Dong-Lim Kim, Seung-Eun Lee, Nan Hee Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(1):43-55.   Published online February 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1629
  • 4,556 View
  • 679 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). CKD increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases; therefore, its prevention and treatment are important. The prevention of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) can be achieved through intensive glycemic control and blood pressure management. Additionally, DKD treatment aims to reduce albuminuria and improve kidney function. In patients with T2DM, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists can delay the progression of DKD. Hence, there is a need for novel treatments that can effectively suppress DKD progression. Finerenone is a first-in-class nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with clinically proven efficacy in improving albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and risk of cardiovascular events in early and advanced DKD. Therefore, finerenone is a promising treatment option to delay DKD progression. This article reviews the mechanism of renal effects and major clinical outcomes of finerenone in DKD.

Citations

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    Markus van der Giet
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    Zhe Liu, Jiahui Liu, Wanning Wang, Xingna An, Ling Luo, Dehai Yu, Weixia Sun
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Original Article
Thyroid
Thyroid Cancer Screening
A Comprehensive Assessment of the Harms of Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy for Thyroid Nodules: A Systematic Review
Ji Yong Park, Wonsuk Choi, A Ram Hong, Jee Hee Yoon, Hee Kyung Kim, Ho-Cheol Kang
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(1):104-116.   Published online February 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1669
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
There have concerns related with the potential harms of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). We aimed to summarize the clinical complications and evaluate the safety of FNAB.
Methods
Studies related with the harms of FNAB were searched on MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane library, and KoreaMed from 2012 to 2022. Also, studies reviewed in the previous systematic reviews were evaluated. Included clinical complications were postprocedural pain, bleeding events, neurological symptoms, tracheal puncture, infections, post-FNAB thyrotoxicosis, and needle tract implantation of thyroid cancers.
Results
Twenty-three cohort studies were included in this review. Nine studies which were related with FNAB-related pain showed that most of the subjects had no or mild discomfort. The 0% to 6.4% of the patients had hematoma or hemorrhage after FNAB, according to 15 studies. Vasovagal reaction, vocal cord palsy, and tracheal puncture have rarely described in the included studies. Needle tract implantation of thyroid malignancies was described in three studies reporting 0.02% to 0.19% of the incidence rate.
Conclusion
FNAB is considered to be a safe diagnostic procedure with rare complications, which are mainly minor events. Thorough assessement of the patients’ medical condition when deciding to perform FNABs would be advisable to lower potential complications.

Citations

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  • To Screen or Not to Screen?
    Do Joon Park
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(1): 69.     CrossRef
  • Thyroid Cancer Screening: How to Maximize Its Benefits and Minimize Its Harms
    Jung Hwan Baek
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(1): 75.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the Appropriateness of Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration
    Lairce Cristina Ribeiro Brito, Iara Beatriz De Carvalho Botêlho, Lanna Matos Silva Fernandes, Nayze Lucena Sangreman Aldeman, Uziel Nunes Silva
    International Journal for Innovation Education and Research.2023; 11(6): 8.     CrossRef
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism