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Original Articles
Thyroid
Active Surveillance for Low-Risk Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma as an Acceptable Management Option with Additional Benefits: A Comprehensive Systematic Review
Jee Hee Yoon, Wonsuk Choi, Ji Yong Park, A Ram Hong, Hee Kyung Kim, Ho-Cheol Kang
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):152-163.   Published online January 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1794
  • 1,441 View
  • 58 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Active surveillance (AS) has been introduced as a management strategy for low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) due to its typically indolent nature. Despite this, the widespread adoption of AS has encountered several challenges. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the safety of AS related to disease progression and its benefits compared with immediate surgery (IS).
Methods
Studies related to AS in patients with low-risk PTC were searched through the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed databases. Studies on disease progression, surgical complication, quality of life (QoL), and cost-effectiveness were separately analyzed and narratively synthesized.
Results
In the evaluation of disease progression, the proportions of cases with tumor growth ≥3 mm and a volume increase >50% were 2.2%–10.8% and 16.0%–25.5%, respectively. Newly detected lymph node metastasis was identified in 0.0%–1.4% of patients. No significant difference was found between IS and delayed surgery in surgical complications, including vocal cord paralysis and postoperative hypoparathyroidism. AS was associated with better QoL than IS. Studies on the cost-effectiveness of AS reported inconsistent data, but AS was more cost-effective when quality-adjusted life years were considered.
Conclusion
AS is an acceptable management option for patients with low-risk PTC based on the low rate of disease progression and the absence of an increased mortality risk. AS has additional benefits, including improved QoL and greater QoL-based cost-effectiveness.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • It Is Time to Understand the Additional Benefits of Active Surveillance for Low-Risk Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
    Kyeong Jin Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2024; 39(1): 95.     CrossRef
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Miscellaneous
Association between N-Terminal Prohormone Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Decreased Skeletal Muscle Mass in a Healthy Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
Tae Kyung Yoo, Marie Yung-Chen Wu, Moon Soo Kim, Mi-Yeon Lee, Yong-Taek Lee, Kyung Jae Yoon, Chul-Hyun Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(2):269-276.   Published online March 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1588
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  • 77 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Although an inverse association between the N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and obesity exists, only few major studies have assessed the association between NT-proBNP levels and skeletal muscle mass in asymptomatic healthy adults. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted.
Methods
We assessed participants who underwent health examinations at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital in South Korea from January 2012 to December 2019. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer, and the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was calculated. Participants were divided into the control, mildly low skeletal muscle mass (LMM) (−2 standard deviation [SD] < SMI ≤−1 [SD]), and severely LMM groups (SD ≤−2) based on their SMI. The association between elevated NT-proBNP level (≥125 pg/mL) and skeletal muscle mass was assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for confounding factors.
Results
This study enrolled 15,013 participants (mean age, 37.52±9.52; men, 54.24%; control, n=12,827; mildly LMM, n=1,998; severely LMM, n=188). Prevalence of elevated NT-proBNP was higher in mildly and severely LMM groups than in the control group (control, 1.19%; mildly LMM, 1.4%; severely LMM, 4.26%; P=0.001). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of elevated NT-proBNP was significantly higher in severely LMM (OR, 2.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 6.37) than in control (OR, 1.00; reference) or mildly LMM groups (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.89).
Conclusion
Our results showed that NT-proBNP elevation were more prevalent in participants with LMM. In addition, our study showed an association between skeletal muscle mass and NT-proBNP level in a relatively young and healthy adult population.
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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Characteristics of Glycemic Control and Long-Term Complications in Patients with Young-Onset Type 2 Diabetes
Han-sang Baek, Ji-Yeon Park, Jin Yu, Joonyub Lee, Yeoree Yang, Jeonghoon Ha, Seung Hwan Lee, Jae Hyoung Cho, Dong-Jun Lim, Hun-Sung Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(4):641-651.   Published online August 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1501
  • 6,337 View
  • 170 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
The prevalence of young-onset diabetes (YOD) has been increasing worldwide. As the incidence of YOD increases, it is necessary to determine the characteristics of YOD and the factors that influence its development and associated complications.
Methods
In this retrospective study, we recruited patients who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus between June 2001 and December 2021 at a tertiary hospital. The study population was categorized according to age: YOD (age <40 years), middle-age-onset diabetes (MOD, 40≤ age <65 years), and late-onset diabetes (LOD, age ≥65 years). We examined trends in glycemic control by analyzing fasting glucose levels during the first year in each age group. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to determine the relative risk of developing complications according to glycemic control trends.
Results
The fasting glucose level at the time of diagnosis was highest in the YOD group (YOD 149±65 mg/dL; MOD 143±54 mg/dL; and LOD 140±55 mg/dL; p=0.009). In the YOD group, glucose levels decreased at 3 months, but increased by 12 months. YOD patients and those with poor glycemic control in the first year were at a higher risk of developing complications, whereas the risk in patients with LOD was not statistically significant.
Conclusion
YOD patients had higher glucose levels at diagnosis, and their glycemic control was poorly maintained. As poor glycemic control can influence the development of complications, especially in young patients, intensive treatment is necessary for patients with YOD.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Increased risk of incident mental disorders in adults with new-onset type 1 diabetes diagnosed after the age of 19: A nationwide cohort study
    Seohyun Kim, Gyuri Kim, So Hyun Cho, Rosa Oh, Ji Yoon Kim, You-Bin Lee, Sang-Man Jin, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jae Hyeon Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism.2024; 50(1): 101505.     CrossRef
  • Association between age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risks: A nationwide population-based study
    Da Hea Seo, Mina Kim, Young Ju Suh, Yongin Cho, Seong Hee Ahn, Seongbin Hong, So Hun Kim
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2024; 208: 111098.     CrossRef
  • Impact of diabetes distress on glycemic control and diabetic complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Hye-Sun Park, Yongin Cho, Da Hea Seo, Seong Hee Ahn, Seongbin Hong, Young Ju Suh, Suk Chon, Jeong-Taek Woo, Sei Hyun Baik, Kwan Woo Lee, So Hun Kim
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Early onset type 2 diabetes mellitus: an update
    Myrsini Strati, Melpomeni Moustaki, Theodora Psaltopoulou, Andromachi Vryonidou, Stavroula A. Paschou
    Endocrine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Complications and Treatment of Early-Onset Type 2 Diabetes
    Fahimeh Soheilipour, Naghmeh Abbasi Kasbi, Mahshid Imankhan, Delaram Eskandari
    International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Characteristics of Glycemic Control and Long-Term Complications in Patients with Young-Onset Type 2 Diabetes (Endocrinol Metab 2022;37:641-51, Han-sang Baek et al.)
    Han-sang Baek, Ji-Yeon Park, Jin Yu, Joonyub Lee, Yeoree Yang, Jeonghoon Ha, Seung Hwan Lee, Jae Hyoung Cho, Dong-Jun Lim, Hun-Sung Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(6): 945.     CrossRef
  • ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2022: Management of the child, adolescent, and young adult with diabetes in limited resource settings
    Anju Virmani, Stuart J. Brink, Angela Middlehurst, Fauzia Mohsin, Franco Giraudo, Archana Sarda, Sana Ajmal, Julia E. von Oettingen, Kuben Pillay, Supawadee Likitmaskul, Luis Eduardo Calliari, Maria E. Craig
    Pediatric Diabetes.2022; 23(8): 1529.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics of Glycemic Control and Long-Term Complications in Patients with Young-Onset Type 2 Diabetes (Endocrinol Metab 2022;37:641-51, Han-sang Baek et al.)
    May Thu Hla Aye, Sajid Adhi Raja, Vui Heng Chong
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(6): 943.     CrossRef
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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Associations of Phthalate Metabolites and Bisphenol A Levels with Obesity in Children: The Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2015 to 2017
Moon Young Seo, Shinje Moon, Shin-Hye Kim, Mi Jung Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(2):249-260.   Published online April 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1235
  • 5,890 View
  • 155 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are synthetic chemicals widely used in daily life. This study investigated urinary phthalate and BPA levels in Korean children and their associations with obesity. Methods: A total of 2,351 children aged 3 to 17 years who participated in the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2015 to 2017 were included. Urinary dilution was corrected using covariate-adjusted standardization (CAS). We examined the geometric mean (GM) concentrations of urinary phthalate metabolites, including di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites (mono [2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl] phthalate, mono [2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl] phthalate, and mono [2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl] phthalate [MECPP]), mono-benzyl-phthalate (MBzP), mono (carboxyoctyl) phthalate (MCOP), mono (carboxy-isononyl) phthalate (MCNP), mono (3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, and mono-n-butyl-phthalate (MnBP), and BPA. We also analyzed the odds ratio (OR) for obesity according to the quartiles of each analyte. Results: The urinary GM levels of DEHP metabolites and MnBP were notably higher among Korean children than among American, Canadian, and German children. The CAS-applied GM concentrations of most analytes, except for MBzP, MCOP, and MCNP, were higher in children aged 3 to 5 years than in those aged 6 to 17 years. The OR for obesity in the highest quartile of MECPP was significantly higher than in the lowest quartile after adjusting for covariates. However, the other phthalate metabolites and BPA were not significantly associated with obesity. Conclusion: The concentrations of urinary DEHP metabolites and MnBP were higher in Korean children than in children in Western countries. Urinary MECPP exposure, but not other phthalates or BPA, showed a positive association with obesity in Korean children. Further studies are required to elucidate the causal relationships.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Diethyl phthalate, a plasticizer, induces adipocyte inflammation and apoptosis in mice after long‐term dietary administration
    Shirsha Mondal, Soumyadeep Basu, Songita Ghosh, Suktara Guria, Sutapa Mukherjee
    Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Nontargeted metabolomic evidence for antagonism between tetracycline and its resistance bacteria underlying their obesogenic effects on Caenorhabditis elegans
    Zhuo Li, Di Wu, Zhenyang Yu, Changzheng Cui, Daqiang Yin
    Science of The Total Environment.2023; 859: 160223.     CrossRef
  • Prospective association between phthalate exposure in childhood and liver function in adolescence: the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort Study
    Seonhwa Lee, Hye Ah Lee, Bohyun Park, Hyejin Han, Young Sun Hong, Eun Hee Ha, Hyesook Park
    Environmental Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Bisphenol A substitutes and childhood obesity at 7 years: a cross-sectional study in Shandong, China
    Minyan Chen, Cheng Lv, Shanyu Zhang, Lap Ah Tse, Xinyu Hong, Xi Liu, Yu Ding, Ping Xiao, Ying Tian, Yu Gao
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research.2023; 30(29): 73174.     CrossRef
  • Association between Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among US adults: Mediation analysis of body mass index and waist circumference in the NHANES
    Youming He, Jun Zou, Ting Hong, Dan Feng
    Food and Chemical Toxicology.2023; 179: 113968.     CrossRef
  • Association between phthalate exposure and obesity risk: A meta-analysis of observational studies
    Qian Wu, Gang Li, Chen-Yang Zhao, Xiao-Lin Na, Yun-Bo Zhang
    Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology.2023; 102: 104240.     CrossRef
  • Levels of Bisphenol A and its analogs in nails, saliva, and urine of children: a case control study
    Yolanda Gálvez-Ontiveros, Inmaculada Moscoso-Ruiz, Vega Almazán Fernández de Bobadilla, Celia Monteagudo, Rafael Giménez-Martínez, Lourdes Rodrigo, Alberto Zafra-Gómez, Ana Rivas
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Nontargeted Metabolomic Evidence for Antagonism between Tetracycline and its Resistance Bacteria Underlying Their Obesogenic Effects on Caenorhabditis Elegans
    Zhuo Li, Zhenyang Yu, Changzheng Cui, Daqiang Yin
    SSRN Electronic Journal .2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Thyroid
Big Data Articles (National Health Insurance Service Database)
Risk of Diabetes in Patients with Long-Standing Graves’ Disease: A Longitudinal Study
Eyun Song, Min Ji Koo, Eunjin Noh, Soon Young Hwang, Min Jeong Park, Jung A Kim, Eun Roh, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Geum Joon Cho, Hye Jin Yoo
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(6):1277-1286.   Published online December 16, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1251
  • 5,301 View
  • 182 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The detrimental effects of excessive thyroid hormone on glucose metabolism have been widely investigated. However, the risk of diabetes in patients with long-standing hyperthyroidism, especially according to treatment modality, remains uncertain, with few longitudinal studies.
Methods
The risk of diabetes in patients with Graves’ disease treated with antithyroid drugs (ATDs) for longer than the conventional duration (≥2 years) was compared with that in age-and sex-matched controls. The risk was further compared according to subsequent treatment modalities after a 24-month course of ATD: continuation of ATD (ATD group) vs. radioactive iodine ablation (RIA) group.
Results
A total of 4,593 patients were included. Diabetes was diagnosed in 751 (16.3%) patients over a follow-up of 7.3 years. The hazard ratio (HR) for diabetes, after adjusting for various known risk factors, was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.28) in patients with hyperthyroidism. Among the treatment modality groups, the RIA group (n=102) had a higher risk of diabetes than the ATD group (n=4,491) with HR of 1.56 (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.42). Further, the risk of diabetes increased with an increase in the ATD treatment duration (P for trend=0.019).
Conclusion
The risk of diabetes was significantly higher in patients with long-standing Graves’ disease than in the general population, especially in patients who underwent RIA and prolonged ATD treatment. Special attention to hyperglycemia during follow-up along with effective control of hyperthyroidism may be necessary to reduce the risk of diabetes in these patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Safety of non-standard regimen of systemic steroid therapy in patients with Graves’ orbitopathy: a single-centre experience
    Nadia Sawicka-Gutaj, Dawid Gruszczyński, Natalia Zawalna, Kacper Nijakowski, Agnieszka Skiba, Mateusz Pochylski, Jerzy Sowiński, Marek Ruchała
    Pharmacological Reports.2024; 76(1): 185.     CrossRef
  • Increased risk of diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer
    Hwa Young Ahn, Jooyoung Lee, Jinmo Kang, Eun Kyung Lee
    European Journal of Endocrinology.2024; 190(3): 248.     CrossRef
  • Prevalencia de diabetes en personas con disfunción tiroidea
    Juan J. Díez, Pedro Iglesias
    Medicina Clínica.2023; 160(8): 333.     CrossRef
  • Control of Thyroid Dysfunction in Spanish Population Registered in the Primary Care Clinical Database: An Analysis of the Proportion of Patients with Thyrotropin Values Outside the Reference Range
    Juan J. Díez, Pedro Iglesias
    Hormone and Metabolic Research.2023; 55(03): 184.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and its relationship to income level and employment status: a nationwide population-based study in Spain
    Juan J. Díez, Pedro Iglesias
    Hormones.2023; 22(2): 243.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of diabetes in people with thyroid dysfunction
    Juan J. Díez, Pedro Iglesias
    Medicina Clínica (English Edition).2023; 160(8): 333.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes Mellitus Secondary to Endocrine Diseases: An Update of Diagnostic and Treatment Particularities
    Mihaela Simona Popoviciu, Lorena Paduraru, Raluca Marinela Nutas, Alexandra Maria Ujoc, Galal Yahya, Kamel Metwally, Simona Cavalu
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(16): 12676.     CrossRef
  • Thyroid Eye Disease and Its Association With Diabetes Mellitus: A Major Review
    Roshmi Gupta, Pramila Kalra, Lakshmi B. Ramamurthy, Suryasnata Rath
    Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery.2023; 39(6S): S51.     CrossRef
  • Metabolite Changes during the Transition from Hyperthyroidism to Euthyroidism in Patients with Graves’ Disease
    Ho Yeop Lee, Byeong Chang Sim, Ha Thi Nga, Ji Sun Moon, Jingwen Tian, Nguyen Thi Linh, Sang Hyeon Ju, Dong Wook Choi, Daiki Setoyama, Hyon-Seung Yi
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(6): 891.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes and Hyperthyroidism: Is There a Causal Link?
    Sang Yong Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(6): 1175.     CrossRef
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Thyroid
Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of Coexisting Thyroid Cancer in Patients with Graves’ Disease: A Retrospective Multicenter Study
Jee Hee Yoon, Meihua Jin, Mijin Kim, A Ram Hong, Hee Kyung Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Won Bae Kim, Young Kee Shong, Min Ji Jeon, Ho-Cheol Kang
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(6):1268-1276.   Published online November 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1227
  • 4,980 View
  • 187 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The association between Graves’ disease (GD) and co-existing thyroid cancer is still controversial and most of the previously reported data have been based on surgically treated GD patients. This study investigated the clinicopathological findings and prognosis of concomitant thyroid cancer in GD patients in the era of widespread application of ultrasonography.
Methods
Data of GD patients who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer between 2010 and 2019 in three tertiary hospitals in South Korea (Asan Medical Center, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, and Pusan National University Hospital) were collected and analyzed retrospectively. In the subgroup analysis, aggressiveness and clinical outcomes of thyroid cancer were compared nodular GD and non-nodular GD groups according to the presence or absence of the thyroid nodules other than thyroid cancer (index nodules).
Results
Of the 15,159 GD patients treated at the hospitals during the study period, 262 (1.7%) underwent thyroidectomy for coexisting thyroid cancer. Eleven patients (4.2%) were diagnosed with occult thyroid cancer and 182 patients (69.5%) had microcarcinomas. No differences in thyroid cancer aggressiveness, ultrasonographic findings, or prognosis were observed between the nodular GD and non-nodular GD groups except the cancer subtype. In the multivariate analysis, only lymph node (LN) metastasis was an independent prognostic factor for recurrent/persistent disease of thyroid cancer arising in GD (P=0.020).
Conclusion
The prevalence of concomitant thyroid cancer in GD patients was considerably lower than in previous reports. The clinical outcomes of thyroid cancer in GD patients were also excellent but, more cautious follow-up is necessary for patients with LN metastasis in the same way as for thyroid cancer in non-GD patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison of Surgical Outcomes of Transoral Versus Open Thyroidectomy for Graves Disease
    Suo-Hsien Wang, Wu-Po Chao, Ta-You Lo, Soh-Ching Ng, Yu-Hsien Chen
    Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques.2024; 34(2): 150.     CrossRef
  • Outcomes of Surgical Treatment for Graves’ Disease: A Single-Center Experience of 216 Cases
    Hanxing Sun, Hui Tong, Xiaohui Shen, Haoji Gao, Jie Kuang, Xi Chen, Qinyu Li, Weihua Qiu, Zhuoran Liu, Jiqi Yan
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(4): 1308.     CrossRef
  • Cancer and Mortality Risks of Graves’ Disease in South Korea Based on National Data from 2010 to 2019
    Young Ju Choi, Kyungdo Han, Won Kyoung Cho, Min Ho Jung, Byung-Kyu Suh
    Clinical Epidemiology.2023; Volume 15: 535.     CrossRef
  • Risk and Prognosis of Thyroid Cancer in Patients with Graves’ Disease: An Umbrella Review
    Marco Palella, Francesca Maria Giustolisi, Adriana Modica Fiascaro, Martina Fichera, Antonella Palmieri, Rossella Cannarella, Aldo E. Calogero, Margherita Ferrante, Maria Fiore
    Cancers.2023; 15(10): 2724.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics, staging and outcomes of differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with and without Graves’ disease
    Chaitra Gopinath, Hanna Crow, Sujata Panthi, Leonidas Bantis, Kenneth D. Burman, Chitra Choudhary
    Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology.2023; 33: 100321.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence, Treatment Status, and Comorbidities of Hyperthyroidism in Korea from 2003 to 2018: A Nationwide Population Study
    Hwa Young Ahn, Sun Wook Cho, Mi Young Lee, Young Joo Park, Bon Seok Koo, Hang-Seok Chang, Ka Hee Yi
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(4): 436.     CrossRef
  • Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Follow-Up Study in Patients with Absence of Aggressive Risk Factors at the Surgery of the Primary Tumor
    Andrea Marongiu, Susanna Nuvoli, Andrea De Vito, Sonia Vargiu, Angela Spanu, Giuseppe Madeddu
    Diagnostics.2023; 13(19): 3068.     CrossRef
  • Table of Contents

    Clinical Thyroidology.2022; 34(2): 48.     CrossRef
  • Predisposition to and Prognosis of Thyroid Cancer May Not Be Affected by Graves’ Disease, But Some Questions Still Remain
    Yanrui Huang, Haixia Guan
    Clinical Thyroidology.2022; 34(2): 59.     CrossRef
  • A Comparative Follow-Up Study of Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Associated or Not with Graves’ Disease
    Andrea Marongiu, Susanna Nuvoli, Andrea De Vito, Maria Rondini, Angela Spanu, Giuseppe Madeddu
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(11): 2801.     CrossRef
  • An unusual case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as Graves’ disease
    Pooja Tiwari, Uma Kaimal Saikia, Abhamoni Baro, Ashok Krishna Bhuyan
    Thyroid Research and Practice.2022; 19(1): 47.     CrossRef
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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Prognostic Value of Triglyceride and Glucose Index for Incident Type 2 Diabetes beyond Metabolic Health and Obesity
Hwi Seung Kim, Jiwoo Lee, Yun Kyung Cho, Eun Hee Kim, Min Jung Lee, Hong-Kyu Kim, Joong-Yeol Park, Woo Je Lee, Chang Hee Jung
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(5):1042-1054.   Published online October 21, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1184
  • 5,545 View
  • 134 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype is metabolically heterogeneous in terms of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Previously, the triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index has been considered for identifying metabolic health and future risk of T2D. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of incident T2D according to obesity status and metabolic health, categorized by four different criteria and the TyG index.
Methods
The study included 39,418 Koreans without T2D at baseline. The risk of T2D was evaluated based on four different definitions of metabolic health and obesity status and according to the baseline TyG index within each metabolic health and obesity group.
Results
During the median follow-up at 38.1 months, 726 individuals developed T2D. Compared with the metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO) group with low TyG index, the MHO group with high TyG index showed increased risk of T2D in all four definitions of metabolic health with multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of 2.57 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76 to 3.75), 3.72 (95% CI, 2.15 to 6.43), 4.13 (95% CI, 2.67 to 6.38), and 3.05 (95% CI, 2.24 to 4.15), when defined by Adult Treatment Panel III, Wildman, Karelis, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) criteria, respectively.
Conclusion
MHO subjects with high TyG index were at an increased risk of developing T2D compared with MHNO subjects, regardless of the definition of metabolic health. TyG index may serve as an additional factor for predicting the individual risk of incident T2D in MHO subjects.
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Bone Metabolism
Comparison of the Effects of Various Antidiabetic Medication on Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Jeonghoon Ha, Yejee Lim, Mee Kyoung Kim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Ki-Ho Song, Seung Hyun Ko, Moo Il Kang, Sung Dae Moon, Ki-Hyun Baek
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(4):895-903.   Published online August 9, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1026
  • 6,308 View
  • 232 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Prospective comparative studies on the effects of various antidiabetic agents on bone metabolism are limited. This study aimed to assess changes in bone mass and biochemical bone markers in postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
This prospective, multicenter, open-label, comparative trial included 264 patients with T2DM. Patients who had received a metformin, or sulfonylurea/metformin combination (Group 1); a thiazolidinedione combination (Group 2); a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (gemigliptin) combination (Group 3); or an sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (empagliflozin) combination (Group 4) were prospectively treated for 12 months; bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover marker (BTM) changes were evaluated.
Results
The femoral neck BMD percentage changes were −0.79%±2.86% (Group 1), −2.50%±3.08% (Group 2), −1.05%±2.74% (Group 3), and −1.24%±2.91% (Group 4) (P<0.05). The total hip BMD percentage changes were −0.57%±1.79% (Group 1), −1.74%±1.48% (Group 2), −0.75%±1.87% (Group 3), and −1.27%±1.72% (Group 4) (P<0.05). Mean serum BTM (C-terminal type 1 collagen telopeptide and procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide) levels measured during the study period did not change over time or differ between groups.
Conclusion
Significant bone loss in the femoral neck and total hip was associated with thiazolidinedione combination regimens. However, bone loss was not significantly associated with combination regimens including gemigliptin or empagliflozin. Caution should be exercised during treatment with antidiabetic medications that adversely affect the bone in patients with diabetes at a high risk of bone loss.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Meta-Analysis on the Association Between DPP-4 Inhibitors and Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporosis
    Lili Huang, Wei Zhong, Xinghuan Liang, Huijuan Wang, Shi-en Fu, Zuojie Luo
    Journal of Clinical Densitometry.2024; 27(1): 101455.     CrossRef
  • A multicentre, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, randomized, parallel comparison, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pioglitazone add‐on therapy in type 2 diabetic patients treated with metformin and dapagliflozin
    Soo Lim, Seung‐Hwan Lee, Kyung‐Wan Min, Chang Beom Lee, Sang Yong Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Nan Hee Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim, Seungjoon Oh, Jong Chul Won, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Mi Kyung Kim, Jung Hwan Park, In‐Kyung Jeong, Sungrae Kim
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2024; 26(6): 2188.     CrossRef
  • Association of Bone Turnover Markers with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Microvascular Complications: A Matched Case-Control Study
    Yilin Hou, Xiaoyu Hou, Qian Nie, Qiuyang Xia, Rui Hu, Xiaoyue Yang, Guangyao Song, Luping Ren
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity.2023; Volume 16: 1177.     CrossRef
  • Complementary effects of dapagliflozin and lobeglitazone on metabolism in a diet-induced obese mouse model
    Yun Kyung Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Ji In Lee, Bo Yoon Choi, Hyen Chung Cho, Hak Chul Jang, Sung Hee Choi
    European Journal of Pharmacology.2023; 957: 175946.     CrossRef
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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Increased Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Individuals with High Weight Variability
Inha Jung, Dae-Jeong Koo, Mi Yeon Lee, Sun Joon Moon, Hyemi Kwon, Se Eun Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(4):845-854.   Published online August 27, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1098
  • 5,073 View
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  • 8 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Weight loss through lifestyle modification is recommended for patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent studies have suggested that repeated loss and gain of weight is associated with worse health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the association between weight variability and the risk of NAFLD in patients without diabetes.
Methods
We examined the health-checkup data of 30,708 participants who had undergone serial examinations between 2010 and 2014. Weight variability was assessed using coefficient of variation and the average successive variability of weight (ASVW), which was defined as the sum of absolute weight changes between successive years over the 5-year period divided by 4. The participants were classified according to the baseline body mass index and weight difference over 4 years.
Results
On dividing the participants into four groups according to ASVW quartile groups, those in the highest quartile showed a significantly increased risk of NAFLD compared to those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63 to 2.19). Among participants without obesity at baseline, individuals with high ASVW showed increased risk of NAFLD (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.61 to 2.01). Participants with increased weight over 4 years and high ASVW demonstrated higher risk of NAFLD compared to those with stable weight and low ASVW (OR, 4.87; 95% CI, 4.29 to 5.53).
Conclusion
Regardless of participant baseline obesity status, high weight variability was associated with an increased risk of developing NAFLD. Our results suggest that further effort is required to minimize weight fluctuations after achieving a desirable body weight.

Citations

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  • Changes in Macronutrients during Dieting Lead to Weight Cycling and Metabolic Complications in Mouse Model
    Anouk Charlot, Anthony Bringolf, Léa Debrut, Joris Mallard, Anne-Laure Charles, Emilie Crouchet, Delphine Duteil, Bernard Geny, Joffrey Zoll
    Nutrients.2024; 16(5): 646.     CrossRef
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    Obesity.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Katie J. McMenamin, Tamara B. Harris, Joshua F. Baker
    Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle.2023; 14(4): 1648.     CrossRef
  • Dulaglutide Ameliorates Palmitic Acid-Induced Hepatic Steatosis by Activating FAM3A Signaling Pathway
    Jinmi Lee, Seok-Woo Hong, Min-Jeong Kim, Sun Joon Moon, Hyemi Kwon, Se Eun Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(1): 74.     CrossRef
  • Triglyceride and glucose index is a simple and easy‐to‐calculate marker associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Kyung‐Soo Kim, Sangmo Hong, Hong‐Yup Ahn, Cheol‐Young Park
    Obesity.2022; 30(6): 1279.     CrossRef
  • Metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease in individuals of normal weight
    Mohammed Eslam, Hashem B. El-Serag, Sven Francque, Shiv K. Sarin, Lai Wei, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Jacob George
    Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology.2022; 19(10): 638.     CrossRef
  • Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance in Adults: A before and after Pandemic Lockdown Longitudinal Study
    Ángel Arturo López-González, Bárbara Altisench Jané, Luis Masmiquel Comas, Sebastiana Arroyo Bote, Hilda María González San Miguel, José Ignacio Ramírez Manent
    Nutrients.2022; 14(14): 2795.     CrossRef
  • Higher Weight Variability Could Bring You a Fatty Liver
    Yeoree Yang, Jae-Hyoung Cho
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(4): 766.     CrossRef
  • Autonomic Imbalance Increases the Risk for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    Inha Jung, Da Young Lee, Mi Yeon Lee, Hyemi Kwon, Eun-Jung Rhee, Cheol-Young Park, Ki-Won Oh, Won-Young Lee, Sung-Woo Park, Se Eun Park
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Lower High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration Is Independently Associated with Greater Future Accumulation of Intra-Abdominal Fat
Sun Ok Song, You-Cheol Hwang, Han Uk Ryu, Steven E. Kahn, Donna L. Leonetti, Wilfred Y. Fujimoto, Edward J. Boyko
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(4):835-844.   Published online August 27, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1130
  • 4,494 View
  • 120 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Both intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are known to be associated with cardiometabolic health. We evaluated whether the accumulation of computed tomography (CT)-measured IAF over 5 years was related to baseline HDL-C concentration in a prospective cohort study.
Methods
All participants were Japanese-Americans between the ages of 34 and 74 years. Plasma HDL-C concentration and CT measurements of IAF, abdominal subcutaneous fat (SCF), and thigh SCF cross-sectional areas were assessed at baseline and at 5-year follow-up visits.
Results
A total of 397 subjects without diabetes were included. The mean±standard deviation HDL-C concentration was 51.6±13.0 mg/dL in men and 66.0±17.0 mg/dL in women, and the IAF was 91.9±48.4 cm2 in men and 63.1±39.5 cm2 in women. The baseline plasma concentration of HDL-C was inversely associated with the change in IAF over 5 years using multivariable regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, family history of diabetes, weight change over 5 years, and baseline measurements of body mass index, IAF, abdominal SCF, abdominal circumference, thigh SCF, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance.
Conclusion
These results demonstrate that HDL-C concentration significantly predicts future accumulation of IAF over 5 years independent of age, sex, insulin sensitivity, and body composition in Japanese-American men and women without diabetes.

Citations

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  • Fenofibrate add-on to statin treatment is associated with low all-cause death and cardiovascular disease in the general population with high triglyceride levels
    Kyung-Soo Kim, Sangmo Hong, Kyungdo Han, Cheol-Young Park
    Metabolism.2022; 137: 155327.     CrossRef
  • The associations between lipid profiles and visceral obesity among gastrointestinal cancer patients: a cross-sectional study
    Bo Gao, Xiangrui Li, Wenqing Chen, Shu’an Wang, Jian He, Yu Liu, Chao Ding, Xiaotian Chen
    Lipids in Health and Disease.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
High Fibrosis-4 Index Is Related with Worse Clinical Outcome in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Diabetes Mellitus: A Multicenter Observational Study
Sung-Woo Kim, Jae-Han Jeon, Jun Sung Moon, Mi Kyung Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(4):800-809.   Published online August 20, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1040
  • 5,185 View
  • 177 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Based on recent evidence on the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, we analyzed whether these factors could additively predict such mortality.
Methods
This multicenter observational study included 1,019 adult inpatients admitted to university hospitals in Daegu. The demographic and laboratory findings, mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM and/or a high FIB-4 index. The mortality risk and corresponding hazard ratio (HR) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models.
Results
The patients with DM (n=217) exhibited significantly higher FIB-4 index and mortality compared to those without DM. Although DM (HR, 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63 to 4.33) and a high FIB-4 index (HR, 4.20; 95% CI, 2.21 to 7.99) were separately identified as risk factors for COVID-19 mortality, the patients with both DM and high FIB-4 index had a significantly higher mortality (HR, 9.54; 95% CI, 4.11 to 22.15). Higher FIB-4 indices were associated with higher mortality regardless of DM. A high FIB-4 index with DM was more significantly associated with a severe clinical course with mortality (odds ratio, 11.24; 95% CI, 5.90 to 21.41) than a low FIB-4 index without DM, followed by a high FIB-4 index alone and DM alone. The duration of quarantine and hospital stay also tended to be longer in those with both DM and high FIB-4 index.
Conclusion
Both DM and high FIB-4 index are independent and additive risk factors for COVID-19 mortality.

Citations

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  • COVID-19 and hepatic injury: Diversity and risk assessment
    Fares E M Ali, Mostafa K Abd El-Aziz, Mahmoud M Ali, Osama M Ghogar, Adel G Bakr
    World Journal of Gastroenterology.2023; 29(3): 425.     CrossRef
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    Dilara Hatipoğlu, Connor Mulligan, Jeffrey Wang, Juan Peticco, Reid Grinspoon, Sanjay Gadi, Camilla Mills, Jay Luther, Raymond T. Chung
    Gastro Hep Advances.2023; 2(4): 480.     CrossRef
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    Gowthami Sai Kogilathota Jagirdhar, Rakhtan K Qasba, Harsha Pattnaik, Kaanthi Rama, Akshat Banga, Shiva Teja Reddy, Anna Carolina Flumignan Bucharles, Rahul Kashyap, Praveen Reddy Elmati, Vikas Bansal, Yatinder Bains, Theodore DaCosta, Salim Surani
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    Maria Guarino, Valentina Cossiga, Francesco Cutolo, Maria Attanasio, Raffaele Lieto, Filomena Morisco
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    Tiangui Li, Peng Wang, Xiao Gong, Weelic Chong, Yang Hai, Chao You, Juan Kang, Fang Fang, Yu Zhang
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Clinical Study
Gender-Dependent Reference Range of Serum Calcitonin Levels in Healthy Korean Adults
Eyun Song, Min Ji Jeon, Hye Jin Yoo, Sung Jin Bae, Tae Yong Kim, Won Bae Kim, Young Kee Shong, Hong-Kyu Kim, Won Gu Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(2):365-373.   Published online April 7, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.939
  • 5,141 View
  • 152 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Serum calcitonin measurement contains various clinical and methodological aspects. Its reference level is wide and unclear despite sensitive calcitonin kits are available. This study aimed to identify the specific reference range in the healthy Korean adults.
Methods
Subjects were ≥20 years with available calcitonin (measured by a two-site immunoradiometric assay) data by a routine health checkup. Three groups were defined as all eligible subjects (group 1, n=10,566); subjects without self or family history of thyroid disease (group 2, n=5,152); and subjects without chronic kidney disease, autoimmune thyroid disease, medication of proton pump inhibitor/H2 blocker/steroid, or other malignancies (group 3, n=4,638).
Results
This study included 6,341 male and 4,225 female subjects. Males had higher mean calcitonin than females (2.3 pg/mL vs. 1.9 pg/mL, P<0.001) in group 1. This gender difference remained similar in groups 2 and 3. Calcitonin according to age or body mass index was not significant in both genders. Higher calcitonin in smoking than nonsmoking men was observed but not in women. Sixty-nine subjects had calcitonin higher than the upper reference limit (10 pg/mL) and 64 of them had factors associated with hypercalcitoninemia besides medullary thyroid cancer. Our study suggests the reference intervals for men who were non, ex-, current smokers, and women (irrespective of smoking status) as <5.7, <7.1, <7.9, and <3.6 pg/mL, respectively.
Conclusion
Specific calcitonin reference range should be provided considering for sex and smoking status. Taking account for several factors known to induce hypercalcitoninemia can help interpret the gray zone of moderately elevated calcitonin.

Citations

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    Pierpaolo Trimboli, Giuseppe Peloni, Dorotea Confalonieri, Elena Gamarra, Tommaso Piticchio, Francesco Frasca, Petra Makovac, Arnoldo Piccardo, Lorenzo Ruinelli
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    M. Cvek, A. Punda, M. Brekalo, M. Plosnić, A. Barić, D. Kaličanin, L. Brčić, M. Vuletić, I. Gunjača, V. Torlak Lovrić, V. Škrabić, V. Boraska Perica
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    Mirjana Babić Leko, Nikolina Pleić, Ivana Gunjača, Tatijana Zemunik
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Review Article
Obesity and Metabolism
Digital Therapeutics for Obesity and Eating-Related Problems
Meelim Kim, Hyung Jin Choi
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(2):220-228.   Published online March 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.107
  • 9,544 View
  • 409 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
In recent years, digital technologies have rapidly advanced and are being applied to remedy medical problems. These technologies allow us to monitor and manage our physical and mental health in our daily lives. Since lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of the management of obesity and eating behavior problems, digital therapeutics (DTx) represent a powerful and easily accessible treatment modality. This review discusses the critical issues to consider for enhancing the efficacy of DTx in future development initiatives. To competently adapt and expand public access to DTx, it is important for various stakeholders, including health professionals, patients, and guardians, to collaborate with other industry partners and policy-makers in the ecosystem.

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  • KIOS: A smartphone app for self‐monitoring for patients with bipolar disorder
    Mehak Pahwa, Susan L. McElroy, Richard Priesmeyer, Gregg Siegel, Phyllis Siegel, Sharon Nuss, Charles L. Bowden, Rif S. El‐Mallakh
    Bipolar Disorders.2024; 26(1): 84.     CrossRef
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    Sigrídur Lára Gudmundsdóttir, Tommaso Ballarini, María L. Ámundadóttir, Judit Mészáros, Jenna H. Eysteinsdóttir, Ragna H. Thorleifsdóttir, Sigrídur K. Hrafnkelsdóttir, Heida B. Bragadóttir, Saemundur Oddsson, Jonathan I. Silverberg
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Original Articles
Endocrine Research
Danshen Extracts Prevents Obesity and Activates Mitochondrial Function in Brown Adipose Tissue
Yoon Hee Cho, Cheol Ryong Ku, Young-Suk Choi, Hyeon Jeong Lee, Eun Jig Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(1):185-195.   Published online February 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.835
  • 4,781 View
  • 132 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Danshen has been widely used in oriental medicine to improve body function. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of water-soluble Danshen extract (DE) on weight loss and on activation proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in obese mice.
Methods
BAT was isolated from 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, and expression of proteins related to mitochondrial biogenesis was confirmed in both brown preadipocytes and mature brown adipocytes treated with DE. For the in vivo study, low-density lipoprotein receptor knock out mice were divided into three groups and treated for 17 weeks with: standard diet; high fat diet (HFD); HFD+DE. Body weight was measured every week, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed after DE treatment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. To observe the changes in markers related to thermogenesis and adipogenesis in the BAT, white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver of experimental animals, tissues were removed and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen.
Results
DE increased the expression of uncoupling protein 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha in brown preadipocytes, and also promoted the brown adipocyte differentiation and mitochondrial function in the mature brown adipocytes. Reactive oxygen species production in brown preadipocytes was increased depending on the concentration of DE. DE activates thermogenesis in BAT and normalizes increased body weight and adipogenesis in the liver due to HFD. Browning of WAT was increased in WAT of DE treatment group.
Conclusion
DE protects against obesity and activates mitochondrial function in BAT.

Citations

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  • Pharmacological Benefits and Underlying Mechanisms of Salvia miltiorrhiza against Molecular Pathology of Various Liver Diseases: A Review
    Cho Hyun Hwang, Eungyeong Jang, Jang-Hoon Lee
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine.2023; 51(07): 1675.     CrossRef
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Endocrine Research
Suppression of Fibrotic Reactions of Chitosan-Alginate Microcapsules Containing Porcine Islets by Dexamethasone Surface Coating
Min Jung Kim, Heon-Seok Park, Ji-Won Kim, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Rhee, Young-Hye You, Gilson Khang, Chung-Gyu Park, Kun-Ho Yoon
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(1):146-156.   Published online February 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.879
  • 5,958 View
  • 155 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
The microencapsulation is an ideal solution to overcome immune rejection without immunosuppressive treatment. Poor biocompatibility and small molecular antigens secreted from encapsulated islets induce fibrosis infiltration. Therefore, the aims of this study were to improve the biocompatibility of microcapsules by dexamethasone coating and to verify its effect after xenogeneic transplantation in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes mice.
Methods
Dexamethasone 21-phosphate (Dexa) was dissolved in 1% chitosan and was cross-linked with the alginate microcapsule surface. Insulin secretion and viability assays were performed 14 days after microencapsulation. Dexa-containing chitosan-coated alginate (Dexa-chitosan) or alginate microencapsulated porcine islets were transplanted into diabetic mice. The fibrosis infiltration score was calculated from the harvested microcapsules. The harvested microcapsules were stained with trichrome and for insulin and macrophages.
Results
No significant differences in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and islet viability were noted among naked, alginate, and Dexa-chitosan microencapsulated islets. After transplantation of microencapsulated porcine islets, nonfasting blood glucose were normalized in both the Dexa-chitosan and alginate groups until 231 days. The average glucose after transplantation were lower in the Dexa-chitosan group than the alginate group. Pericapsular fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration of microcapsules were significantly reduced in Dexa-chitosan compared with alginate microcapsules. Dithizone and insulin were positive in Dexa-chitosan capsules. Although fibrosis and macrophage infiltration was noted on the surface, some alginate microcapsules were stained with insulin.
Conclusion
Dexa coating on microcapsules significantly suppressed the fibrotic reaction on the capsule surface after transplantation of xenogenic islets containing microcapsules without any harmful effects on the function and survival of the islets.

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  • Engineering superstable islets-laden chitosan microgels with carboxymethyl cellulose coating for long-term blood glucose regulation in vivo
    Haofei Li, Weijun He, Qi Feng, Junlin Chen, Xinbin Xu, Chuhan Lv, Changchun Zhu, Hua Dong
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    Zahra Hosseinzadeh, Iran Alemzadeh, Manouchehr Vossoughi
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    Kehang Duan, Jiao Liu, Jian Zhang, Tongjia Chu, Huan Liu, Fengxiang Lou, Ziyu Liu, Bing Gao, Shixiong Wei, Feng Wei
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    Courtney D. Johnson, Helim Aranda-Espinoza, John P. Fisher
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    Li Chen, Fang Jiang, Haidan Xu, Yaoyao Fan, Cunbin Du
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    Dinesh Chaudhary, Tiep Tien Nguyen, Simmyung Yook, Jee-Heon Jeong
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    Jesus Paez-Mayorga, Izeia Lukin, Dwaine Emerich, Paul de Vos, Gorka Orive, Alessandro Grattoni
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    Wenyan Li, Xuejiao Lei, Hua Feng, Bingyun Li, Jiming Kong, Malcolm Xing
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    Joonyub Lee, Kun‐Ho Yoon
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    P. S. Ermakova, E. I. Cherkasova, N. A. Lenshina, A. N. Konev, M. A. Batenkin, S. A. Chesnokov, D. M. Kuchin, E. V. Zagainova, V. E. Zagainov, A. V. Kashina
    Russian Journal of Transplantology and Artificial Organs.2021; 23(4): 95.     CrossRef
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism