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Original Articles
Diabetes, obesity and metabolism
Triglyceride-Glucose Index Predicts Future Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases: A 16-Year Follow-up in a Prospective, Community-Dwelling Cohort Study
Joon Ho Moon, Yongkang Kim, Tae Jung Oh, Jae Hoon Moon, Soo Heon Kwak, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, Sung Hee Choi, Nam H. Cho
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(4):406-417.   Published online August 3, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1703
  • 1,510 View
  • 116 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
While the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index is a measure of insulin resistance, its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been well elucidated. We evaluated the TyG index for prediction of CVDs in a prospective large communitybased cohort.
Methods
Individuals 40 to 70 years old were prospectively followed for a median 15.6 years. The TyG index was calculated as the Ln [fasting triglycerides (mg/dL)×fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2]. CVDs included any acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease or cerebrovascular disease. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to estimate CVD risks according to quartiles of the TyG index and plotted the receiver operating characteristics curve for the incident CVD.
Results
Among 8,511 subjects (age 51.9±8.8 years; 47.5% males), 931 (10.9%) had incident CVDs during the follow-up. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, total cholesterol, smoking, alcohol, exercise, and C-reactive protein, subjects in the highest TyG quartile had 36% increased risk of incident CVD compared with the lowest TyG quartile (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.68). Carotid plaque, assessed by ultrasonography was more frequent in subjects in the higher quartile of TyG index (P for trend=0.049 in men and P for trend <0.001 in women). The TyG index had a higher predictive power for CVDs than the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (area under the curve, 0.578 for TyG and 0.543 for HOMA-IR). Adding TyG index on diabetes or hypertension alone gave sounder predictability for CVDs.
Conclusion
The TyG index is independently associated with future CVDs in 16 years of follow-up in large, prospective Korean cohort.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Evaluation of the novel three lipid indices for predicting five- and ten-year incidence of cardiovascular disease: findings from Kerman coronary artery disease risk factors study (KERCADRS)
    Alireza Jafari, Hamid Najafipour, Mitra Shadkam, Sina Aminizadeh
    Lipids in Health and Disease.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Construction and validation of a nomogram for predicting diabetes remission at 3 months after bariatric surgery in patients with obesity combined with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Kaisheng Yuan, Bing Wu, Ruiqi Zeng, Fuqing Zhou, Ruixiang Hu, Cunchuan Wang
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
The Presence of Clonal Hematopoiesis Is Negatively Associated with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes
Tae Jung Oh, Han Song, Youngil Koh, Sung Hee Choi
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(2):243-248.   Published online April 25, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1337
  • 2,633 View
  • 113 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) has been reported to be associated with increased cardiovascular disease, aging and insulin resistance. Despite the debate of causal contribution of CHIP on metabolic diseases, we want to explore whether CHIP is related to diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN).
Methods
This study analyzed the prevalence of CHIP in patients with type 2 diabetes classified according to DPN status. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between CHIP and DPN.
Results
CHIP was more prevalent in subjects without DPN than those with DPN (19.9% vs. 8.8%, respectively; P=0.013). Individuals having any CHIP, or DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) CHIP were less likely to have any abnormality shown in DPN test; the adjusted odds ratio were 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 1.00) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.89), respectively. Interestingly, DNMT3A CHIP showed the negative association, but Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2) CHIP showed the positive association with abnormal feet electrochemical skin conductance level.
Conclusion
On the contrary to expectations, CHIP was negatively associated with DPN. Functional linking between the mutation in hematopoietic cells and DPN, and the opposite role of DNMT3A and TET2 should be investigated.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Clonal hematopoiesis with DNMT3A mutation is associated with lower white matter hyperintensity volume
    Woo‐Jin Lee, Keun‐Hwa Jung, Han Song, Heesun Lee, Hyo Eun Park, Youngil Koh, Su‐Yeon Choi, Kyung‐Il Park
    CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics.2023; 29(5): 1243.     CrossRef
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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Big Data Articles (National Health Insurance Service Database)
Frequency of Exposure to Impaired Fasting Glucose and Risk of Mortality and Cardiovascular Outcomes
Seung-Hwan Lee, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Mee Kyoung Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(5):1007-1015.   Published online October 21, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1218
  • 3,256 View
  • 125 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Metabolic abnormalities, such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG), are dynamic phenomena; however, it is unclear whether the timing of IFG exposure and cumulative exposure to IFG are related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality risk.
Methods
Data were extracted from a nationwide population-based cohort in South Korea for adults (n=2,206,679) who were free of diabetes and had 4 years of consecutive health examination data. Fasting blood glucose levels of 100 to 125 mg/dL were defined as IFG, and the number of IFG diagnoses for each adult in the 4-year period was tabulated as the IFG exposure score (range, 0 to 4). Adults with persistent IFG for the 4-year period received a score of 4.
Results
The median follow-up was 8.2 years. There were 24,820 deaths, 13,502 cases of stroke, and 13,057 cases of myocardial infarction (MI). IFG exposure scores of 1, 2, 3, and 4 were associated with all-cause mortality (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 1.15; aHR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.20; aHR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.25; aHR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.25, respectively) compared with an IFG exposure score of 0. Adjusting for hypertension and dyslipidemia attenuated the slightly increased risk of MI or stroke associated with high IFG exposure scores, but significant associations for allcause mortality remained.
Conclusion
The intensity of IFG exposure was associated with an elevated risk of all-cause mortality, independent of cardiovascular risk factors. The association between IFG exposure and CVD risk was largely mediated by the coexistence of dyslipidemia and hypertension.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A nationwide cohort study on diabetes severity and risk of Parkinson disease
    Kyungdo Han, Bongsung Kim, Seung Hwan Lee, Mee Kyoung Kim
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Diabetes severity is strongly associated with the risk of active tuberculosis in people with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide cohort study with a 6-year follow-up
    Ji Young Kang, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee, Mee Kyoung Kim
    Respiratory Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Construction and Validation of a Model for Predicting Impaired Fasting Glucose Based on More Than 4000 General Population
    Cuicui Wang, Xu Zhang, Chenwei Li, Na Li, Xueni Jia, Hui Zhao
    International Journal of General Medicine.2023; Volume 16: 1415.     CrossRef
  • Factors Affecting High Body Weight Variability
    Kyungdo Han, Mee Kyoung Kim
    Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome.2023; 32(2): 163.     CrossRef
  • Exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and risk of stroke in adults: a meta-analysis
    Min Cheol Chang, Seung Min Chung, Sang Gyu Kwak
    Reviews on Environmental Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cumulative effect of impaired fasting glucose on the risk of dementia in middle-aged and elderly people: a nationwide cohort study
    Jin Yu, Kyu-Na Lee, Hun-Sung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Longitudinal Retrospective Observational Study on Obesity Indicators and the Risk of Impaired Fasting Glucose in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women
    Myung Ji Nam, Hyunjin Kim, Yeon Joo Choi, Kyung-Hwan Cho, Seon Mee Kim, Yong-Kyun Roh, Kyungdo Han, Jin-Hyung Jung, Yong-Gyu Park, Joo-Hyun Park, Do-Hoon Kim
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2022; 11(10): 2795.     CrossRef
  • Current Trends of Big Data Research Using the Korean National Health Information Database
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(4): 552.     CrossRef
  • Lipid cutoffs for increased cardiovascular disease risk in non-diabetic young people
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Hun-Sung Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon, Seung-Hwan Lee
    European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.2022; 29(14): 1866.     CrossRef
  • Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level, Statin Use and Myocardial Infarction Risk in Young Adults
    Heekyoung Jeong, Kyungdo Han, Soon Jib Yoo, Mee Kyoung Kim
    Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.2022; 11(3): 288.     CrossRef
  • Additive interaction of diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease in cancer patient mortality risk
    Seohyun Kim, Gyuri Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Review Articles
Calcium & Bone Metabolism
Review and Update of the Risk Factors and Prevention of Antiresorptive-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw
Ha Young Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(5):917-927.   Published online October 21, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1170
  • 3,931 View
  • 250 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Antiresorptive-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ARONJ) is a rare but serious adverse event of bisphosphonate or denosumab administration; it is associated with severe pain and a deteriorated quality of life. Since its first report in 2003, there have been many studies on its definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Nevertheless, the epidemiology and mechanisms underlying this condition have not yet been fully delineated and several risk factors are known. Moreover, as there is no effective treatment currently available for osteonecrosis of the jaw, prevention is essential. Furthermore, close cooperation between prescribing physicians and dentists is important. The aim of this review was to provide up-to-date information regarding the risk factors and prevention of ARONJ from a physician’s perspective.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • When and how to stop denosumab therapy in a patient with osteoporosis
    Eirena L. Goulden, Rachel K. Crowley
    Clinical Endocrinology.2023; 98(5): 649.     CrossRef
  • Risk factors for dental findings of the development of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: Investigation of 3734 teeth in cancer patients receiving high dose antiresorptive agents
    Mitsunobu Otsuru, Yoshinari Fujiki, Sakiko Soutome, Norio Nakamura, Taro Miyoshi, Tomofumi Naruse, Mizuho Ohnuma, Yuka Hotokezaka, Satoshi Rokutanda, Masahiro Umeda
    Journal of Dental Sciences.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical and Histopathological Aspects of MRONJ in Cancer Patients
    George Adrian Ciobanu, Laurențiu Mogoantă, Adrian Camen, Mihaela Ionescu, Daniel Vlad, Ionela Elisabeta Staicu, Cristina Maria Munteanu, Mircea Ionuț Gheorghiță, Răzvan Mercuț, Elena Claudia Sin, Sanda Mihaela Popescu
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(10): 3383.     CrossRef
  • Bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaws: Clinical and forensic aspects
    Diana Nogueira, Inês Morais Caldas, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
    Archives of Oral Biology.2023; 155: 105792.     CrossRef
  • Correlations between Immune Response and Etiopathogenic Factors of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Cancer Patients Treated with Zoledronic Acid
    George Adrian Ciobanu, Laurențiu Mogoantă, Sanda Mihaela Popescu, Mihaela Ionescu, Cristina Maria Munteanu, Ionela Elisabeta Staicu, Răzvan Mercuț, Cristian Corneliu Georgescu, Monica Scrieciu, Daniel Vlad, Adrian Camen
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(18): 14345.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of the Degree of Information of Dental Surgeons about Antiresorptive Drugs According to the Time Since Graduation in Dentistry
    Flávia Godinho Costa Wanderley Rocha, Roberto Paulo Correia de Araújo
    Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Safety and Efficacy of Pamidronate in Neonatal Hypercalcemia Caused by Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis: A Case Report
    Stefano Martinelli, Marco Pitea, Italo Francesco Gatelli, Tara Raouf, Graziano Barera, Ottavio Vitelli
    Frontiers in Pediatrics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Zoledronic acid for osteoporosis and associated low-energy fractures
    S. S. Rodionova, A. F. Kolondaev, A. N. Torgashin, I. A. Solomyannik
    Meditsinskiy sovet = Medical Council.2022; (21): 163.     CrossRef
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Obesity and Metabolism
An Update on Contraception in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Seda Hanife Oguz, Bulent Okan Yildiz
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(2):296-311.   Published online April 15, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.958
  • 10,037 View
  • 672 Download
  • 14 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in reproductive-aged women, characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo/anovulation, and polycystic ovarian morphology. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs), along with lifestyle modifications, represent the first-line medical treatment for the long-term management of PCOS. Containing low doses of estrogen and different types of progestin, COCs restore menstrual cyclicity, improve hyperandrogenism, and provide additional benefits such as reducing the risk of endometrial cancer. However, potential cardiometabolic risk associated with these agents has been a concern. COCs increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), related both to the dose of estrogen and the type of progestin involved. Arterial thrombotic events related to COC use occur much less frequently, and usually not a concern for young patients. All patients diagnosed with PCOS should be carefully evaluated for cardiometabolic risk factors at baseline, before initiating a COC. Age, smoking, obesity, glucose intolerance or diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, thrombophilia, and family history of VTE should be recorded. Patients should be re-assessed at consecutive visits, more closely if any baseline cardiometabolic risk factor is present. Individual risk assessment is the key in order to avoid unfavorable outcomes related to COC use in women with PCOS.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Current and emerging drug treatment strategies for polycystic ovary syndrome
    Nafiye Helvaci, Bulent Okan Yildiz
    Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy.2023; 24(1): 105.     CrossRef
  • Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) Discovered Novel Long Non-Coding RNAs for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
    Roozbeh Heidarzadehpilehrood, Maryam Pirhoushiaran, Malina Binti Osman, Habibah Abdul Hamid, King-Hwa Ling
    Biomedicines.2023; 11(2): 518.     CrossRef
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    Mali Wu, Hua Liu, Jie Zhang, Fangfang Dai, Yiping Gong, Yanxiang Cheng
    Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Carmen Pingarrón Santofímia, Silvia Poyo Torcal, Helena López Verdú, Alexandra Henríquez Linares, Virginia Calvente Aguilar, Pablo Terol Sánchez, María Sol Martínez García, Pilar Lafuente González
    Gynecological Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Contemporary Management of the Patient with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
    Nicolás Omar Francone, Tia Ramirez, Christina E. Boots
    Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America.2023; 50(4): 695.     CrossRef
  • Challenges in diagnosis and health care in polycystic ovary syndrome in Canada: a patient view to improve health care
    Beate C. Sydora, Michaelann S. Wilke, Maggie McPherson, Sarah Chambers, Mahua Ghosh, Donna F. Vine
    BMC Women's Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical management of androgen excess and defect in women
    Elena Rosato, Francesca Sciarra, Marianna Minnetti, Anisa Degjoni, Mary Anna Venneri
    Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Berberine Phytosome on reproductive, dermatologic, and metabolic characteristics in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a controlled, randomized, multi-centric, open-label clinical trial
    Francesco Di Pierro, Ruqqia Sultana, Amna Zia Eusaph, Saida Abrar, Mahroo Bugti, Fauzia Afridi, Umer Farooq, Somia Iqtadar, Fareeha Ghauri, Syeda Makhduma, Shazia Nourin, Ayesha Kanwal, Aasiya Bano, Ali Akbar Bugti, Shah Mureed, Ayesha Ghazal, Romana Irsh
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  • Investigation of taste function and eating behavior in women with polycystic ovary syndrome
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    Appetite.2022; 168: 105776.     CrossRef
  • microRNAs and long non‐coding RNAs as biomarkers for polycystic ovary syndrome
    Mona Tamaddon, Mostafa Azimzadeh, Seyed Mohammad Tavangar
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine.2022; 26(3): 654.     CrossRef
  • Effect of orlistat during individualized comprehensive life-style intervention on visceral fat in overweight or obese PCOS patients
    Min Min, Xiangyan Ruan, Husheng Wang, Jiaojiao Cheng, Suiyu Luo, Zhongting Xu, Meng Li, Alfred Otto Mueck
    Gynecological Endocrinology.2022; 38(8): 676.     CrossRef
  • Effect of metformin and exenatide on pregnancy rate and pregnancy outcomes in overweight or obese infertility PCOS women: long-term follow-up of an RCT
    Renyuan Li, Tingting Mai, Siyuan Zheng, Ying Zhang
    Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics.2022; 306(5): 1711.     CrossRef
  • Oral contraceptives and stroke: Foes or friends
    Varun Reddy, Megan Wurtz, Shahil H. Patel, Micheline McCarthy, Ami P. Raval
    Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology.2022; 67: 101016.     CrossRef
  • Clinical profiling of polycystic ovary syndrome patients in Kashmir population
    Ahila Ashraf, Rajesh Singh, Shahnawaz Mir
    Matrix Science Pharma.2022; 6(1): 23.     CrossRef
Close layer
Diabetes
Prevalence and Current Management of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Korean Adults Based on Fact Sheets
Eun-Jung Rhee
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(1):85-94.   Published online March 19, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.35.1.85
  • 7,990 View
  • 158 Download
  • 37 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   

Korea is currently an aged society and is on the cusp of becoming a superaged society in a few years. The health burden of cardiovascular diseases increases with age, and the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, may be linked to increased population-level cardiovascular risk. In 2018, the prevalence of obesity in Korea was 35.7% (men, 45.4%; women, 26.5%) according to the Obesity Fact Sheet 2019, based on National Health Insurance Corporation medical checkup data. In 2016, the prevalence of diabetes was 14.4% in Koreans older than 30 years according to the Diabetes Fact Sheet published by the Korean Diabetes Association, based on data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence of hypertension in the total population of Korea in 2018 was 28.3% according to the Korean Hypertension Fact Sheet produced by the Korean Society of Hypertension. Lastly, the prevalence of dyslipidemia in 2018 was 40.5% according to the Dyslipidemia Fact Sheet published by the Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis. In this article, I would like to review the prevalence and current management of cardiovascular risk factors in Korea according to the fact sheets released by various associations.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A Study on Changes in Nutritional and Blood Conditions Before and After Consumption of Diabetic Soymilk in Elderly Women with Diabetes
    Hyo-Jeong Hwang, Soon-Hee Park, Seon-Young Park, Soo-Rin Ahn, Su-Jin Park, Yoo-Jin Lee, Kwang-Jin Chon, Chung-Hwa Song, Dae-Gyun Moon, Kyung-Ok Shin
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    Jin A Lee, Seong-Soo Roh, Woo Rak Lee, Mi-Rae Shin
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    Hack-Lyoung Kim, Myung-A Kim
    Korean Circulation Journal.2023; 53(10): 655.     CrossRef
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    Jeonghee Jeong, Mijin Kim
    Healthcare.2022; 10(1): 112.     CrossRef
  • Genetic Determinants of Visit-to-Visit Lipid Variability: Genome-Wide Association Study in Statin-Naïve Korean Population
    Jun-Bean Park, Eunsoon Shin, Jong-Eun Lee, Seung Jae Lee, Heesun Lee, Su-Yeon Choi, Eun Kyung Choe, Seung Ho Choi, Hyo Eun Park
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • TheIn VitroAntioxidant and Antidiabetic Activity of Various Fractions from Monascus-Fermented Ginger Extract
    Su-Min Yoon, Young-Hee Pyo
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2022; 51(2): 125.     CrossRef
  • The Influence of Obesity and Metabolic Health on Vascular Health
    Eun-Jung Rhee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(1): 1.     CrossRef
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    Hyo Lee, Miyoung Lee
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Seung‐Jae Lee, Hyunah Kim, Byeong Kil Oh, Hyo‐In Choi, Ki‐Chul Sung, Jeonggyu Kang, Mi Yeon Lee, Jong‐Young Lee
    Clinical Cardiology.2022; 45(7): 767.     CrossRef
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    Rubee Dev, Alayne M. Adams, Valeria Raparelli, Colleen M. Norris, Louise Pilote
    Canadian Journal of Cardiology.2022; 38(12): 1799.     CrossRef
  • Effects of exercise initiation and smoking cessation after new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus on risk of mortality and cardiovascular outcomes
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Bongsung Kim, Jinyoung Kim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Dyslipidaemia—Genotype Interactions with Nutrient Intake and Cerebro-Cardiovascular Disease
    Sung-Bum Lee, Ja-Eun Choi, Byoungjin Park, Mi-Yeon Cha, Kyung-Won Hong, Dong-Hyuk Jung
    Biomedicines.2022; 10(7): 1615.     CrossRef
  • Current status of obesity treatment in Korea: based on the 2020 Korean Society for the Study of Obesity guidelines for obesity management
    Eun-Jung Rhee
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2022; 65(7): 388.     CrossRef
  • Association between endocrine-disrupting chemical mixture and metabolic indices among children, adolescents, and adults: A population-based study in Korea
    Byungmi Kim, Bohyun Park, Chung Ho Kim, Seyoung Kim, Bomi Park
    Environmental Pollution.2022; 315: 120399.     CrossRef
  • Genetic variation rs1121980 in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is associated with dietary intake in Koreans
    Young Goh, Jeong-Hwa Choi
    Food & Nutrition Research.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The association between hyperuricemia and cardiovascular disease history: A cross-sectional study using KoGES HEXA data
    Joo-Hee Kim, Mi Jung Kwon, Hyo Geun Choi, Sang Jun Lee, Sung-Woo Kim, Ji Hee Kim, Bong Cheol Kwon, Jung Woo Lee
    Medicine.2022; 101(51): e32338.     CrossRef
  • Association between Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical Mixture and Metabolic Indices Among Children, Adolescents, And Adults: A Population-Based Study in Korea
    Byungmi Kim, Chung Ho Kim, Bohyun Park, Seyoung Kim, Bomi Park
    SSRN Electronic Journal .2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Thirty-six Year Trends in Mortality from Diseases of Circulatory System in Korea
    Jongmin Baek, Hokyou Lee, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Ji Eun Heo, So Mi Jemma Cho, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Korean Circulation Journal.2021; 51(4): 320.     CrossRef
  • Identification of susceptibility loci for cardiovascular disease in adults with hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia
    Youhyun Song, Ja-Eun Choi, Yu-Jin Kwon, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Jung Oh Kim, Da-Hyun Park, Jae-Min Park, Seong-Jin Kim, Ji Won Lee, Kyung-Won Hong
    Journal of Translational Medicine.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of Maintaining Healthy Habits with Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Diabetes, Dyslipidemia or Hypertension
    Jeong Hyeon Kim, Young Ho Yun
    Korean Journal of Family Practice.2021; 11(1): 74.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in Korea
    Hyeon Chang Kim
    Global Health & Medicine.2021; 3(3): 134.     CrossRef
  • Cumulative exposure to impaired fasting glucose and future risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Eun Sil Koh, Oak-Kee Hong, Ki-Hyun Baek, Ki-Ho Song, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2021; 175: 108799.     CrossRef
  • Association between Diabetes Mellitus and Oral Health Status in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
    Su-Jin Han, Youn-Jung Son, Bo-Hwan Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(9): 4889.     CrossRef
  • Comorbidities and Factors Determining Medical Expenses and Length of Stay for Admitted COVID-19 Patients in Korea
    Su Yeon Jang, Jeong-Yeon Seon, Seok-Jun Yoon, So-Youn Park, Seung Heon Lee, In-Hwan Oh
    Risk Management and Healthcare Policy.2021; Volume 14: 2021.     CrossRef
  • Metabolic Syndrome Fact Sheet 2021: Executive Report
    Ji Hye Huh, Dae Ryong Kang, Jang Young Kim, Kwang Kon Koh
    CardioMetabolic Syndrome Journal.2021; 1(2): 125.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Triticum turgidum ssp. turanicum on serum lipid levels and colonic microbiota of dyslipidemia-induced rats
    Hyeon-Ju Seo, Kyoung-Sik Han
    Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences.2021; 13(3): 195.     CrossRef
  • The Clinical Characteristics of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Korea: A National Health Information Database Study
    Kyung-Soo Kim, Sangmo Hong, Kyungdo Han, Cheol-Young Park
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(3): 628.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Atorvastatin 40 mg/ω-3 Fatty Acids 4 g Fixed-dose Combination and Atorvastatin 40 mg Monotherapy in Hypertriglyceridemic Patients who Poorly Respond to Atorvastatin 40 mg Monotherapy: An 8-week, Multicenter, Random
    Jong Shin Woo, Soon Jun Hong, Dong Hoon Cha, Kee Sik Kim, Moo Hyun Kim, Jun-Won Lee, Myung Ho Jeong, Jin-Ok Jeong, Jun-Hee Lee, Doo Soo Jeon, Eun Joo Cho, Soon Kil Kim, Jun Kwan, Chang Gyu Park, Hae Young Lee, Taek Jong Hong, Jinho Shin, Ho Joong Youn, Do
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Close layer
Bone Metabolism
Potential Biomarkers to Improve the Prediction of Osteoporotic Fractures
Beom-Jun Kim, Seung Hun Lee, Jung-Min Koh
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(1):55-63.   Published online March 19, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.35.1.55
  • 4,337 View
  • 104 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   

Osteoporotic fracture (OF) is associated with high disability and morbidity rates. The burden of OF may be reduced by early identification of subjects who are vulnerable to fracture. Although the current fracture risk assessment model includes clinical risk factors (CRFs) and bone mineral density (BMD), its overall ability to identify individuals at high risk for fracture remains suboptimal. Efforts have therefore been made to identify potential biomarkers that can predict the risk of OF, independent of or combined with CRFs and BMD. This review highlights the emerging biomarkers of bone metabolism, including sphongosine-1-phosphate, leucine-rich repeat-containing 17, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, sclerostin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, and periostin, and the importance of biomarker risk score, generated by combining these markers, in enhancing the accuracy of fracture prediction.

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Close layer
Original Article
Clinical Study
Disease-Specific Mortality of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients in Korea: A Multicenter Cohort Study
Min Ji Jeon, Won Gu Kim, Tae Hyuk Kim, Hee Kyung Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Hyon-Seung Yi, Eun Sook Kim, Hosu Kim, Young Nam Kim, Eun Heui Kim, Tae Yong Kim, Sun Wook Kim, Ho-Cheol Kang, Jae Hoon Chung, Young Kee Shong, Won Bae Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2017;32(4):434-441.   Published online November 22, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2017.32.4.434
  • 5,367 View
  • 53 Download
  • 26 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

Little is known regarding disease-specific mortality of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients and its risk factors in Korea.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed a large multi-center cohort of thyroid cancer from six Korean hospitals and included 8,058 DTC patients who underwent initial surgery between 1996 and 2005.

Results

Mean age of patients at diagnosis was 46.2±12.3 years; 87% were females. Most patients had papillary thyroid cancer (PTC; 97%) and underwent total thyroidectomy (85%). Mean size of the primary tumor was 1.6±1.0 cm. Approximately 40% of patients had cervical lymph node (LN) metastases and 1.3% had synchronous distant metastases. During 11.3 years of follow-up, 150 disease-specific mortalities (1.9%) occurred; the 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rate was 98%. According to the year of diagnosis, the number of disease-specific mortality was not different. However, the rate of disease-specific mortality decreased during the study period (from 7.7% to 0.7%). Older age (≥45 years) at diagnosis, male, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) versus PTC, larger tumor size (>2 cm), presence of extrathyroidal extension (ETE), lateral cervical LN metastasis, distant metastasis and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage were independent risk factors of disease-specific mortality of DTC patients.

Conclusion

The rate of disease-specific mortality of Korean DTC patients was 1.9%; the 10-year DSS rate was 98% during 1996 to 2005. Older age at diagnosis, male, FTC, larger tumor size, presence of ETE, lateral cervical LN metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stages were significant risk factors of disease-specific mortality of Korean DTC patients.

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Close layer
Review Article
Calcium and Cardiovascular Disease
Ian R. Reid, Sarah M. Birstow, Mark J. Bolland
Endocrinol Metab. 2017;32(3):339-349.   Published online September 18, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2017.32.3.339
  • 8,688 View
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  • 66 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Circulating calcium is a risk factor for vascular disease, a conclusion arising from prospective studies involving hundreds of thousands of participants and extending over periods of up to 30 years. These associations may be partially mediated by other cardiovascular risk factors such as circulating lipid levels, blood pressure, and body mass index, but there appears to be a residual independent effect of serum calcium. Polymorphisms of the calcium-sensing receptor associated with small elevations of serum calcium are also associated with cardiovascular disease, suggesting that calcium plays a causative role. Trials of calcium supplements in patients on dialysis and those with less severe renal failure demonstrate increased mortality and/or acceleration of vascular disease, and meta-analyses of trials in those without overt renal disease suggest a similar adverse effect. Interpretation of the latter trials is complicated by a significant interaction between baseline use of calcium supplements and the effect of randomisation to calcium in the largest trial. Restriction of analysis to those who are calcium-naive demonstrates a consistent adverse effect. Observational studies of dietary calcium do not demonstrate a consistent adverse effect on cardiovascular health, though very high or very low intakes may be deleterious. Thus, obtaining calcium from the diet rather than supplements is to be encouraged.

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Close layer
Original Article
Utility of the Visceral Adiposity Index and Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype for Predicting Incident Hypertension
Mohsen Janghorbani, Mohammad Reza Salamat, Ashraf Aminorroaya, Masoud Amini
Endocrinol Metab. 2017;32(2):221-229.   Published online May 19, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2017.32.2.221
  • 4,302 View
  • 41 Download
  • 24 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the visceral adiposity index (VAI) and the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype as possible hypertension (HTN) predictors in a high-risk population without diabetes and HTN.

Methods

Incident HTN over a 7-year follow-up was assessed among 1,375 first-degree non-diabetic and non-hypertensive relatives of consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes who were 30 to 70 years of age. HTN was defined as a blood pressure reading ≥140/90 mm Hg or the use of antihypertensive medications. We examined the incidence of HTN across VAI quintiles and four groups defined according to baseline fasting serum triglyceride (TG) levels and waist circumference (WC).

Results

The VAI and the HTGW phenotype at baseline were related to an increased risk for HTN. In comparison with the lowest VAI quintile, the highest VAI quintile showed a significant associated with HTN in an age- and gender-adjusted model (odds ratio [OR], 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 2.55). Those with HTGW were 2.3 times (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.54 to 3.35) more likely to develop HTN than those with a normal WC and normal TG levels.

Conclusion

Greater VAI values weakly predicted HTN, whereas the HTGW phenotype was a stronger predictor of incident HTN in an Iranian high-risk population.

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  • Response: Utility of the Visceral Adiposity Index and Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype for Predicting Incident Hypertension (Endocrinol Metab 2017;32:221-9, Mohsen Janghorbani et al.)
    Mohsen Janghorbani
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2017; 32(4): 485.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Utility of the Visceral Adiposity Index and Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype for Predicting Incident Hypertension (Endocrinol Metab 2017;32:221-9, Mohsen Janghorbani et al.)
    Eun-Jung Rhee
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Close layer
Review Article
Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment
Jae Hoon Moon
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(2):185-192.   Published online April 25, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.2.185
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  • 22 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed.

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Original Articles
Obesity and Metabolism
Factors Associated with Glycemic Variability in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Focus on Oral Hypoglycemic Agents and Cardiovascular Risk Factors
Soyeon Yoo, Sang-Ouk Chin, Sang-Ah Lee, Gwanpyo Koh
Endocrinol Metab. 2015;30(3):352-360.   Published online August 4, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2015.30.3.352
  • 3,355 View
  • 44 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

The role of glycemic variability (GV) in development of cardiovascular diseases remains controversial, and factors that determine glucose fluctuation in patients with diabetes are unknown. We investigated relationships between GV indices, kinds of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

We analyzed 209 patients with T2DM. The GV index (standard deviation [SD] and mean absolute glucose change [MAG]) were calculated from 7-point self-monitoring of blood glucose profiles. The patients were classified into four groups according to whether they take OHAs known as GV-lowering (A) and GV-increasing (B): 1 (A only), 2 (neither), 3 (both A and B), and 4 (B only). The 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) was calculated using the Pooled Cohort Equations.

Results

GV indices were significantly higher in patients taking sulfonylureas (SUs), but lower in those taking dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. In hierarchical regression analysis, the use of SUs remained independent correlates of the SD (β=0.209, P=0.009) and MAG (β=0.214, P=0.011). In four OHA groups, GV indices increased progressively from group 1 to group 4. However, these did not differ according to quartiles of 10-year ASCVD risk.

Conclusion

GV indices correlated significantly with the use of OHAs, particularly SU, and differed significantly according to combination of OHAs. However, cardiovascular risk factors and 10-year ASCVD risk were not related to GV indices. These findings suggest that GV is largely determined by properties of OHAs and not to cardiovascular complications in patients with T2DM.

Citations

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    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Close layer
Obesity and Metabolism
Associations between Dietary Acid-Base Load and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adults: The Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Hadise Khosravi, Fereidoun Azizi
Endocrinol Metab. 2015;30(2):201-207.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2015.30.2.201
  • 3,172 View
  • 28 Download
  • 32 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

In this study we investigated the associations of dietary acid-base load, identified by potential renal acid load (PRAL) and protein to potassium (Pro:K) ratio, with cardiometabolic risk factors in Tehranian adults.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the fourth phase of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2009 to 2011) on 5,620 men and women aged 19 to 70 years. Dietary data were collected by a trained dietitian using a validated, 147-food item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and dietary PRAL and Pro:K ratio were calculated. Multiple linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounding variables were used to evaluate the associations of dietary acid-base load with anthropometric measures, blood pressure, serum triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum creatinine, and fasting blood glucose.

Results

The mean±SD age of the participants was 39.8±12.8 years and 54% of participants were women. Mean±SD PRAL was -22.0±29.1; mean PRAL was -15.6 in men and -26.8 in women. Dietary PRAL was associated with weight (β=0.098, P<0.001), waist circumference (β=0.062, P<0.01), serum triglycerides (β=0.143, P<0.01), HDL-C (β=-0.11, P<0.01), diastolic blood pressure (β=0.062, P<0.01), and serum creatinine (β=0.142, P<0.001). Pro:K ratio was associated with weight (β=0.055, P<0.001), waist circumference (β=0.04, P<0.01), serum HDL-C (β=-0.06, P<0.01), serum triglycerides (β=0.03, P<0.05), diastolic blood pressure (β=0.026, P<0.05), and serum creatinine (β=0.07, P<0.01).

Conclusion

A more acidic dietary acid-base load may be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders.

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Close layer
Obesity and Metabolism
Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen Levels and Serological Biomarkers of Gastric Inflammation are Associated with Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Maryam Zarif-yeaganeh, Homayoun Zojaji, Fereidoun Azizi
Endocrinol Metab. 2015;30(3):280-287.   Published online May 18, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2015.30.3.280
  • 3,009 View
  • 28 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Helicobacter pylori infection and subsequent gastric inflammation have been proposed as risk factors for the development of insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. In this study we assessed the possible association of H. pylori bacterial load, and serum biomarker of gastric inflammation with cardiometabolic risk factors in diabetic patients.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, 84 H. pylori-infected type 2 diabetic patients were assessed for anthropometrics, biochemical and clinical measurements. Pearson correlation test, linear, and logarithmic regression curve estimation models were used to assess the association of H. pylori stool antigen (HpSAg) levels, and pepsinogen I (PGI) to pepsinogen II (PGII) ratio with fasting serum glucose, insulin, serum lipid and lipoprotein parameters, malondialdehyde, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body weight, waist circumference and lipid accumulation product (LAP) index.

Results

The mean age of participants was 54±10 years, and 44% were men. Mean HpSAg levels and PGI/PGII ratio were 0.24±0.23 µg/mL and 9.9±9.0, respectively. Higher HpSAg as well as lower PGI/PGII was correlated with higher anthropometric measures and LAP. A significant negative correlation between PGI/PGII ratio and blood pressure (r=-0.21 and r=-0.22, systolic and diastolic, respectively, P<0.05), serum insulin (r=-0.17, P=0.05), and hs-CRP (r=-0.17, P=0.05) was observed. A significant linear association between PGI/PGII ratio with serum triglycerides (β=-0.24, P<0.05), serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; β=0.43, P<0.01), and triglycerides/HDL-C ratio (β=-0.28, P<0.05) were observed.

Conclusion

Higher H. pylori bacterial load and lower PGI/PGII ratio was associated with higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors in H. pylori infected type 2 diabetic patients.

Citations

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Close layer
Review Article
Thyroid
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Subclinical Thyroid Disease
Ye An Kim, Young Joo Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2014;29(1):20-29.   Published online March 14, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2014.29.1.20
  • 6,033 View
  • 58 Download
  • 68 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Subclinical thyroid disease is defined biochemically by an abnormal thyrotropin (TSH) level and normal serum-free thyroxine level. The prevalence of this condition varies according to the reference range for TSH and geographic or demographic factors. Recently, several studies, including our community-based cohort studies, have reported on the incidence of subclinical thyroid disease in Korea. Using these studies, we reviewed the prevalence and risk factors of subclinical thyroid disease, focusing on subclinical hypothyroidism.

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